Thursday, October 31, 2019
Why be moral - Essay Example It does need to be noted that Nietzsche refers to the common masses as Ã¢â¬ËherdÃ¢â¬â¢. They are a herd in the sense that they rather chose to live according to collective instincts, instead of living their life in accordance with a questioning and doubting intellect. Hence, the herd morality, which is so dear to the masses, encourages people to deny individuality and diversity, in favor of a forced notion of equality supported by a misunderstood concept of democracy. Nietzsche criticizes this herd morality because it tends to value such things and ethics, which actually have no value, just because the majority happens to uphold them. As per Nietzsche, this herd morality forces a social, moral and ethical conformity, instead of nurturing human individuality and human greatness. A realistic and viable sense of morality requires an individual to be willing to suffer, to reject the comfort and security provided by the herd membership, in favor of a painful and questioning conscience. However, instead of embracing the loneliness and insecurity accompanying a questioning intellect, the people in the contemporary Europe opt for a false sense of Ã¢â¬Ëwell beingÃ¢â¬â¢ that comes with being a member of a herd. This turns people into cowards, who chose to be submissive and meek, instead of choosing to be brave by welcoming all the self-doubt and self-criticism that comes when one approaches ethical issues from a fresh perspective. As per Nietzsche, thi s herd mentality is very clever in the sense that it subjugates the instincts and emotions of the masses in return for a cheap sense of stability and collectiveness. It plays on the fears of the people to prevent them for attaining their higher self. According to Nietzsche, this herd morality is indeed inferior to a higher morality that allows the humans to achieve their full potential and growth. This higher morality is not
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
The Development of Illusion and Reality in Tithe Essay Opponents have historically overlooked the primary reasons for itÃ¢â¬â¢s against to plastic surgery. It promotes a continuing descent into all things vain. Rather than accepting their perceived flaws, growing, and developing character, they take a chance going under the knife. Plastic surgery rarely produces the desired results and creates unhealthier obsession with things that would be relatively trivial in a mentally healthy person with proper priorities and emotional disorders. Even if, by some miracle, someone is completely happy with their surgery, it only serves to perpetuate the cycle; for themselves and for others. The obsession doesnt go away in these people. Their thinking inevitably moves on to having more things done. The plastic surgery craze is insidious because it targets those who are obsessed with their outer appearance, not whats important. Furthermore, the demand for cosmetic plastic surgery increases despite the increasing cost, in contrast to other traditional goods for which demand typically declines as price increases. Cosmetic plastic surgery has moved beyond the stage of being an exclusive privilege of the rich and famous. Nevertheless, cosmetic plastic surgery is one of the medical specialties exposed to a substantially high risk of malpractice claims. Most malpractice claims in cosmetic plastic surgery are not consequences of technical faults but because of inadequate patient selection criteria and lack of adequate communication between patient and surgeon. Proven efficient training, careful utilization of computer imaging techniques in association with the adoption of simple precautions and guidelines and adequate communication along with a completed patients consent form are important essentials in case of medical litigation. .Mental and emotional stability are increasingly taking a backseat to physical appearance. People just dont realize what theyre doing to themselves because they have never really valued anything other than physical appearance in the first place. The fact that these things arent obvious to more people truly shows where our culture is heading. Just think about this question: Is the freedom to do whatever we want with our lives a valuable passport even to overpass the limits of morals and ethics. People generally arent against plastic surgery. Theyre against people who look perfectly fine getting their face cut up because they want to look like their favorite celebrity. Opposition A new survey shows that more than half (51%) of all Americans regardless of income approve of cosmetic plastic surgery, this is a 3% increase from 2009. According to the February 2011 report, 52% of respondents with an income of under $25K approve of cosmetic surgery (48% of respondents with an income between $25K-$50K approve, 45% of respondents with an income between $50K-$75K approve, and 56% of respondents with an income above $75K approve) and 29% of the respondents who earn under $25K would consider cosmetic surgery for themselves. Ã¢â¬Å"As the numbers suggest people in every income bracket, single or married, male or female, view plastic surgery as a reasonable option today,Ã¢â¬ said Felmont F. Eaves III, MD, President of The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS). Ã¢â¬Å"Taking care of yourself and paying attention to physical appearance is increasingly important to everyone. As both traditional surgical procedures have been improved and refined, and new nonsurgical options have become available, aesthetic plastic surgeons have more to offer to our patients. Ã¢â¬ Other key findings of the study include:53% of women and 49% of men say they approve of cosmetic surgery. 67% of Americans would not be embarrassed if their friends and family knew they had cosmetic surgery. 27% of married Americans and 33% of unmarried Americans would consider cosmetic surgery for themselves, now or in the future. 67% of white Americans and 72% of non-white Americans say they would not be embarrassed about having cosmetic surgery. Most Americans (71%) said their attitude toward cosmetic surgery had not changed in the last five years, though 20% said it was Ã¢â¬Ëmore favorable. Ã¢â¬ËOut of all age groups, men and women between the ages of 18 and 24 are the most likely to consider plastic surgery for themselves now or in the future (37%). 77% of Americans 65 or older say they would not be embarrassed abouthaving cosmetic surgery. The study was commissioned by the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS) and conducted by the independent research firm innovate. According to 2010 ASAPS Cosmetic Surgery Statistics, almost 9. 5 million cosmetic surgical and nonsurgical procedures were performed in the United States last year. Women had nearly 8. 6 million cosmetic procedures (92 percent of total) and men had more than 750,000 procedures (8 percent of total). Overall, the number of surgical procedures increased by almost 9 percent and nonsurgical cosmetic procedures decreased 9 percent from 2010 to access the complete 2010 ASAPS Statistics. A 2004 study published in the official medical journal of the ASPS, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery found that deaths occurring at office-based surgery facilities are rareless than 1/4 percent. More than 400,000 operative procedures in accredited office-based outpatient surgery centers were studied from 2000-2002. Serious complications were infrequent, occurring 1 in 298 cases or 0. 34 percent with death occurring 1 in 51,459 cases or 0. 0019 percent, which is comparable to the overall risk of such procedures performed in hospital surgery facilities, this publication makes me think about my life or my beauty Well, someone has to defend cosmetic plastic surgery, says Rachel Weisz, Hollywood beauty. There are several reasons why she is in approve of cosmetic plastic surgery, that extend beyond her own vested interest of making a living. She also asks,Ã¢â¬ Where do you draw the line between acceptable vanity and unacceptable vanity? You shower, bathe and get regular haircuts. You color your hair to be lighter, darker, more dramatic, or to hide the grays. You spend large amounts of money on skin care products and eye creams. You wear cosmetics, buy and wear flattering clothing , pay a fortune for your kids to have straight teeth . Why are these things acceptable but cosmetic surgery, which actually works, is not? Do you know that the entire skin care industry is lying to you? Over-the-counter skin care products donÃ¢â¬â¢t work. At best, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t work that well. Regardless of how expensive they are, your face will still sag and wrinkle. Women spend an average of $24,000 over their lifetimes fighting wrinkles, and yet, the wrinkles keep coming. Ã¢â¬ She basically want to covey that she is in approve of cosmetic surgery because is cheaper than using creams or products, she believe in vanity, plus being perfect is the main character in her life. Refutation I have fact about how cans harmful cosmetic surgeries are. October, 2000. A new study suggests that a few patients who seek facial plastic surgery have a personality disorder. Surgery may benefit some of these patients, but others remain discontented and may seek legal recourse from their surgeon. A persons self-image plays a key role in the development of personality. Young men and women with a subjective negative impression of their self-image develop defense mechanisms to cope with low esteem. Later in life, they may request cosmetic surgery to normalize a perceived abnormal appearance. These patients may, in fact, not need cosmetic surgery to address patterns of behavior found in certain personality types. Following surgery, conflict may arise between patient and surgeon. The researchers contend that facial plastic surgeons may encounter this problem. Their study attempts to describe the personality disorders of patients seeking facial plastic surgery to allow the specialist to make an informed decision to treat, or not to treat. The research was carried out by a team led by Henri Gaboriau MD, from the Department of OtolaryngologyHead and Neck Surgery, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, and H. Devon Graham III MD, from the Alton Ochsner Medical Foundation, New Orleans, LA. The findings were presented on April 28,1999 at a meeting of the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. The Bible does not specifically address a Christian having plastic surgery or cosmetic surgery. There is nothing in the Bible to indicate that plastic surgery is, in and of itself, wrong. However, there are several things that one needs to consider before deciding whether or not to undergo these procedures. Altering ones body is unnatural, and there are always risks of potential side effects, both physical and psychological. No one should allow himself to be put Ã¢â¬Å"under the knifeÃ¢â¬ without first thoroughly researching all alternatives, risks, and side effects involved with the surgery. A person also needs to fully identify his or her motivation for desiring the surgery. For many with physical deformities; whether genetic or acquired, it is natural to want to fit into society and feel Ã¢â¬Å"normal. Ã¢â¬ There are also cases of slight abnormalities that would cause someone to feel very uncomfortable with himself, such as a very large or misshapen nose. But many, if not most, plastic surgeries are attempts to meet emotional voids in physical ways, to attract attention, or to seek approval from others. The most important thing to do before making the decision to undergo plastic surgery would be to consult God about the issue. The Bible tells us that God cares about every worry and concern that we have, so we should take our problems to Him (1 Peter 5:7). Through the wisdom and guidance of the Holy Spirit and the Word of God, we have the ability to make decisions that will please and honor Him. Ã¢â¬Å"Charm is deceptive, and beauty is fleeting; but a woman who fears the LORD is to be praisedÃ¢â¬ (Proverbs 31:30). Even the most skilled surgeon cannot hold back the hands of time, and all cosmetic surgeries will eventually have the same resultÃ¢â¬âaging. Those lifted body parts will sag again, and those cosmetically altered facial features will eventually wrinkle. It is far better to work on beautifying the person underneath, Ã¢â¬Å"that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in Gods sightÃ¢â¬ (1 Peter 3:4). Conclusion I am against plastic surgery because it is generally unnecessary surgery which comes with very serious risks. Our society places great importance in appearance, which leads to unrealistic standards that young girls and women. Plastic surgery only strengthens these insane standards and weakens the self-esteem of girls and women who do not feel as though they measure up. Learn to love the body you have. And more people want surgery, but we are not becoming uglier as a race, we are just adjusting our notion of what is beautiful and what is not. All of us are the product of billions of years of evolution and sexual selection; we are the direct descendants of 100s of millions of others who have been found sexually attractive by someone else, we cant be that ugly. As wonderful as this piece of modern medical technology may sound, cosmetic surgery is not all that advantageous and in most of all cases, it is not needed. There is no point in transforming a healthy body. That is why the idea of the perfect body image has to be forgotten, and it has to be recognized that everyone is a special human being. Sources Laurie J. Fundukian, Richard H. Camer Blepharoplasty. . The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Ed.. 4th ed. Detroit: Gale, 2011. 6 vols. Print Kimberly,HenryA. ,andPennyHeckaman. Ã¢â¬Å"The-Plastic-Surgery-SourcebookÃ¢â¬ Lincolnwood: NTC/ Contemporary Publishing, 1999. Print Liz Jones Ã¢â¬ If face creams really beat ageing, I wouldnt have had a faceliftÃ¢â¬ 25 July 2011http://www. dailymail. co. uk. Newswire Association LLC Ã¢â¬Å"Plastic Surgery Complications and Deaths are Rare, Despite Highly Publicized Death of Donda WestÃ¢â¬ US Newswire. Nov. 14, 2007 pNA. http://www. plasticsurgery. org National Review Ã¢â¬Å"Survey Shows That More Than Half of Americans Approve of Cosmetic Plastic SurgeryÃ¢â¬ New York, NY ,April 4, 2011 www. surgery. org http://www. washingtonpost. com/wp-dyn/articles/A63931-2004Oct26. html http://www. prweb. com/releases/2013/3/prweb10557201. htm http://www. deseretnews. com/article/865575486/Teens-turn-to-plastic-surgery-experts-tackle-the-when-and-why. html? pg=all.
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Domestic Violence And The Criminal Justice System Social Work Essay After year of abuse Rachel Susan Miller was tired of being in an abusive relationship, so she waited for the father of her children to come home. She looked him in the face and told him she was leaving, and with escorts, she did so with her children and ran for three years in fear. She probably felt pretty good that day and felt that the criminal justice system would be on her side the day she decided to walk away for her own safety and for the safety of her children. Her ex-husband stalked and brutally assaulted Rachel on April 13, 2000; she died 13 days on April 26, 2000 after the brutal assault. Bruce Daniels, Rachels ex-husband, brutally assaulted and raped Rachel several times that day as she plead for her life and the life of her child. Bruce Daniels pled guilty to murder before his trial began and was sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole for Rachels murder. Although the baby Rachel was carrying died as a result of the brutal attack, Bruce Daniels recei ved no punishment for killing Baby Christopher because of a technicality. Not only did he get away with one murder his 12 year old son Tyler Edmond Daniels Miller, killed himself on June 11, 2001, because of the depression caused by his mothers violent death at the hands of his biological father. (Rachels Story, n.d.) The Criminal Justice System fails to recognize and address the effects a domestic violence environment has on the children who witness the abuse. In a household where domestic violence occurs, child abuse and neglect is 1500 percent higher than the national average. (PowerPoint) Nationally 75 percent of battered women say that their children are physically and sexually abused. (PowerPoint) The statistics show that these occurrences continue to be on the rise in the United States. Approximately 3.3 million children witness domestic violence in their homes each year. Children in exposed to this violence are 2 to 4 times higher rates of temper tantrums, bad school performances, and falling into the wrong crowd. (Power Point) These days it is easy to find a piece of news which informs us about a death of a woman who has been killed by her husband or her boyfriend. Hundred of women are mistreated and then assassinated each year and these deaths are increasing. However, although this is the main problem in our society, there are other kinds of domestic violence that not many people knowbut they have the same importance. In this essay I intent to give a definition of domestic violence and explain the main kinds of abuses. I will also suggest some possible solutions to diminish or to eliminate this problem and I will show some domestic indicators. I intent to argue some unhelpful behaviors and to finish I will discuss the effects of domestic violence in children. The term family violence includes all forms of violence within families. It is commonly used to describe the abuse women suffer at the hands of their male partners, but it is also used to mean family violence. Domestic violence can be physical, sexual, psychological, social or economic. Domestic violence is a hidden problem. It occurs in the privacy of a home, and those involved are usually reluctant to talk about it. The overwhelming majority are women and children who are more vulnerable. There are a lot of kinds of domestic violence such as physical abuse, verbal/emotional abuse, economic abuse, sexual abuse, social abuse or spiritual abuse. The first kind is physical and verbal/emotional abuse. This is produced when any action intended to degrade, humiliate and demean, both in public or private, including threats to injure or otherwise harm, the partner or the children; putting ones partner down and making them feel bad about themselves and their abilities; treating ones partner like a servant; abuser making decisions regarding partners financial status, free time, friendships, work and leisure activities. This constant humiliation will destroy a womans belief in herself and she may start to believe that the abuser is right. Violence has, unfortunately, become a common occurrence of todays society. Everywhere we turn, all we see are visions of violence that are wrongly showcased as solutions to problems. This makes it even more difficult for parents to teach their children proper morals and behaviors when the media projects violent acts in ways that children view as normal. However, some parents arent even trying to halt this wave of aggression. These parents choose to put this epidemic of violence in the express lane. One or both parents are involved in more than half of the astounding 3 million reported cases of child abuse each year (Kim). This number doesnt include the hundreds of cases that are left unreported. How are children to learn how to effectively solve everyday dilemmas, sans violence, when role models are using brutality to solve problems in the home? Abused children are more likely to lead a life that involves violence than children who have a stable, normal upbringing. While there isnt a nailed down definition of child abuse and neglect, and different states and localities have their own definitions, it can be simplified to a general explanation. Child abuse, or neglect, is the failure of a parent or caretaker to act, which results in physical, emotional or sexual maltreatment or death (Salus). Abuse can take many different forms. One type is physical abuse, which obviously involves an infliction of physical harm on the child. Another is sexual abuse, which not only entails physical sexual activity, but also includes non-physical, sexual exploitation (Salus). Emotional abuse is another form, which results when someone is verbally threatened and or humiliated. There are also several different levels of neglect. A child can be subject to physical neglect, which means the caretaker fails to provide for the child physically. Educational and emotional neglects can also be inflicted on a child. Educational neglect occurs when a parent fails to provide a child with the opportunity to gain an education. Emotional abuse is when a child doesnt receive the proper amount of affection or nurturing (Salus). No specific type of abuse can be labeled as the most severe or damaging. However, we know that all types of abuse and neglect can influence a child in a negative manner. As said above, when a parent abuses a child, they start a circle of violence in that childs life. A parent could be driven into abusive behavior by many different factors. Depression is one of the main factors leading up to abuse. Twelve percent of mothers with young children are depressed (Kim). Depressed mothers are also more inclined to notice and correct the childs poor behaviors, while ignoring the pleasant behaviors (Embry). Mothers can then children in emotional and physical distress by ignoring their needs. Taking care of a child, or multiple children, can be a very stressful task. People who are paid as caretakers for children are shown to have higher depression rate than those in high-risk professions such as police officers and firemen (Embry). When a child is cared for in a depressed environment, the chances of the child experiencing with substance abuse and falling into delinquency are three times more likely (Embry). Depression is more or less a communicable disease. Wh ile it may not be directly visible, depression will hurt and affect everyone that comes into contact with it. Another factor is substance abuse by the parent. Parental drug addiction can lead to child neglect or abuse if the parent becomes angry as a result of the drug (Kim). Also, over half of the assaults and homicides of domestic abuse cases involve alcohol (Elliott). Other acts of domestic violence in a household also contribute to child abuse. In a household where domestic violence occurs, child abuse is fifteen times more likely to happen (Kim). Horribly, domestic violence has practically become an ordinary and familiar part of our lives. The statistics show that it continues to be on the rise in the United States. Spousal abuse occurs every fifteen seconds, solely in the U.S. Half of the nations couples have encountered at least one violent event between them. Also, of all assault cases, a shocking 70% involve spousal abuse (Bledsoe). As sad as it seems, battered mothers often turn into abusers. These mothers often take the stress caused by the abuse out on their children. In 50% of all households that contain spousal abuse, child abuse is also present (Bledsoe). Therefore, the conclusion can be made that the more domestic abuse there is in the world, the more child abuse there will be. An excuse often used for this mother-to-child abuse is that the children need to learn to behave better in order to avoid agitation of the abusive father (Kim). However, even if the abused mother does not inflict abuse on the child, he or she can still be in danger in an environment that contains domestic abuse. The child may get injured in an attempt to break up the altercation (Kim). Psychological damage is also common in this situation. The child will begin to think that abuse is a normal part of a relationship, and they will feel unsafe in the relationships of their future (Minerbrook). Furthermore, it is dangerous for a child to be exposed to any of these factors in the home as they may lead to abuse, neglect, psychological issues or even death. Many child abuse cases turn into child fatalities. This is true in the child abuse case of Kelsey Briggs. Kelsey, a two and a half year old girl, died in 2005 as a result of brutal child abuse. The abuse had begun months earlier, consisting of many broken bones and full-body bruising. Attempts were made to have Kelsey relocated to another family member, but each time she eventually returned back to the house of her mother, where her stepfather continued to abuse her. After ten months of enduring maltreatment, Kelsey died of her wounds. Her father, who was serving in Iraq at the time, came home shortly after this, only finding he had to bury his little girl. The stepfather and mother were both found at fault for Kelseys premature death (Ballard). 1,400 child fatalities were reported in the United States in 2002 (Child Abuse in the United States). However, an estimated 60% of child fatalities go unreported, according to a study conducted in Colorado and North Carolina. This leaves us to wonder exactly why these terrible crimes are so rarely reported. Each state has its own official definition of child abuse and neglect. How can it be possible to determine the presence of a crime if there are many opinions on what the crime is? The review process of child fatalities also varies from place to place, and the process is often extensive and conducted by people who arent specialized in recognizing child fatalities. Research concludes that children younger than five years of age are the most at risk. Children under a year old add up to 40% of fatalities. 76% of fatalities are made up of children younger than four years old. Both parents were involved in an astounding 79% of child fatalities (Child Abuse in the United States). Yes, these children obviously cannot become violent, as their abuse ended in death. However, this shows that more and more children are growing into violent adults, whose brutal acts are escalating. While so many innocent children die from abuse and neglect each year, even more victims of abuse survive, equipped with a subconscious pull towards violent behavior. While not all child abuse cases result in a circle of violence, the statistics show that the chances of that happening are very high. Studies also show that the risk of violent behavior is raised by 40% in children who are exposed to violence early in life. Children learn how to react to situations through social learning. They imitate the actions that they see others do. Children then, regrettably, conclude that violence helps them gain power and that it is the best way to achieve respect (Elliott). They also see their parents who are unable to control anger and often have the same inability to control their own emotions in adulthood. Their aggressiveness builds as the years pass and they begin to only think of solutions that involve violent behavior (Minerbrook). While one would think that now, as adults, these individuals would realize that abusive behavior is cruel, the conclusion is quite the opposite. Parents who were subject abuse as children are six times more likely to abuse their own children than parents who had a normal childhood (Kim). They may know that the behavior is wrong, but they subconsciously act with violence to solve issues that arise with their children. The children then pick up the behaviors and begin to become belligerent. These behaviors typically launch in the first few years of the childs schooling. The preschool years are a period of time where the early signs of aggressive behavior can be seen. While kindergarteners rarely commit felonies, they do often interrupt. The interruptions can take place at home or in the classroom. These interruptions can be disrupting the class lesson or just acting out in an attempt to get attention. Yes, it is normal for a younger child to interrupt activities. However, if the interruptions are excessive, this information can be used to predict more violent behavior many years later (Embry). A person who grew up in an abusive environment has a greater chance of continuing the violence in adulthood. It has become a common fact that many serial killers and violent offenders had childhoods that were scarred with child abuse. Children often become depressed as a result of abuse. Boys in particular, show aggressive and sometimes unstable behavior while depressed (Embry). This erratic behavior leads them to act impulsively and begin a life of violence that could quickly turn into a life of crime. A common occurrence in our society is the rising number of violent teenagers. In a study of fourteen juveniles on death row, in several different states, twelve had experienced ruthless physical and sexual abuse (Minerbrook). The chance is 40% greater that abused children, versus non-abused children, will be arrested as juveniles and or in adulthood (Stephens). Violence seems inevitable for an abused child to develop. The statistics are clearly up against those of us who have endured abuse as children. Some say that everyone has free will and that it is their decision to continue the circle of abuse. I cannot argue this fact. However, even as adults, those who have been abused are now subconsciously and maybe even genetically built to produce violence. Without therapy or something of the like, these individuals will be inclined to act violently to situations in their life. In my opinion, those with a history of abuse endure an everyday struggle to overcome their thoughts of brutality. While the majority of these individuals will continue the cycle of violence, there are a few success stories. Some of us overcome the struggles and lead normal and even successful lives. However, the number of people who prolong the sphere of abuse will remain and continue on. Although police are typically the first professionals on the scene after a domestic violence incident, they have limited services to offer families. Law enforcement departments in several areas throughout the country have begun specific programs to improve interventions, including joint arrangements with mental health professionals who, when notified by police, appear at the scene of the domestic violence incident to assist the child and adult victims. Other strategies include police report documentation of a childs presence in the home, which automatically qualifies the child for state victims of crime funding for support services, and specialized training in child development for law enforcement personnel (Open Arms Home). In an effort to address the potential harm to children exposed to domestic violence some policymakers are considering whether such exposure should considered psychological abuse. Opponents argue that such policies would create a clear command for CPS intervention in cases in which children may be psychologically harmed, and would hold batterers more accountable for the effects of their violence by making them child abusers. Opponents argue that such policies may discourage battered women from seeking help because they would be afraid of losing their children, and may further trouble an already overloaded child welfare system. Before child abuse laws are passed, a thorough investigation of their potential impact is needed. Child abuse laws do not give courts and agencies the flexibility needed to review the particular circumstances of each domestic violence case and determine suitable interventions based on that case-by-case analysis. In order to effectively address the wide range of circumstances existing within families with domestic violence, multiple, community-based response systems are needed that do not require court or CPS intervention (Katz 163). Studies that examined age as a factor point out that exposure to domestic violence produced different developmental problems in children at different ages. Infants and toddlers who witness violence in their homes show extreme irritability, immature behavior, sleeping disorders, emotional suffering, fears of being alone, and decline in toileting and language skills. Exposure to trauma, especially violence in the family, interferes with a childs normal growth of trust and later investigative behaviors, which leads to the development of independence. The presence of symptoms in these young children is similar to posttraumatic stress disorder in adults, including continual experiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance, and lack of response (Health Plus). Once women and children affected by domestic violence are identified, health care professionals must be able to either provide them with or refer them to appropriate services. Some health care institutions have routine screening for domestic violence and offer specialized domestic violence services in-house, such as safety planning and support groups for battered women or therapeutic interventions for the children. Mental health system approaches to children exposed to domestic violence vary from crisis interventions to individual, group, and family therapy programs. An estimated 3.3 million children aged 3 to 17 years may witness domestic abuse of a parent every year in the United States (Health Plus). Domestic violence has a weighty effect on children who are exposed to it. Even if the children are not abused themselves, being helpless witnesses to the abuse of a parent is just as traumatizing to them as direct abuse. The effects of living in a violent home may create problems for a child throughout his or her life. Approximately 75% of all abusive men watched their fathers battering their mothers (Open Arms Home). Children depend on their parents to provide a safe, stable and predictable environment. When their parents are involved in a battering relationship, attention is taken away from the childrens needs and focused on the violence. The entire family becomes isolated. The mother and her children are busy with pacifying the batterer and trying to keep him from getting angry (Katz 157). Children in such a situation learn that they dont really matter. They learn that anger means losing control, and that men control women through violence. As Jeanie entered the house, she heard her mom screaming in her bedroom and her dad yelling loud. She also heard noises that sounded as though her father was beating up her mother, and she was sure her dad was beating up her mom. Although this situation happened often at their house, on this day it sounded worse to Jeanie. Jeanie ran to get help from her brother, but he turned her down, saying he didnt care since this happened very often. She didnt know what to do; she was really scared and her mind stopped working. Her sister was sitting quietly in her room; she was so scared that she couldnt even move. Then she heard a loud scream, which seemed like her moms final scream. She ran toward her moms room and knocked hard to get inside, but nobody would let her in. Then she realized that she should call the police; so she did. Police came and arrested her father for domestic violence. She watched her brother come out of his room and leave angrily, because he felt ashamed for what happen ed. Her sister didnt move from her spot because she was so frightened. Her mom thanked her for calling the police and they began working on a new life from then on. After that day Jeanie never talked to her dad or looked at him again Seeing violence all the time at home can make some teenagers violent. A high percentage of juvenile delinquents are battered children. Eight percent of men in prison grew up in violent homes (Kurland 63). Of child murderers specifically boys ages 11-20, 63% killed the men who were abusing their mothers (Bruhn 49). They go around and pick on young children in the neighborhood. Also they get into fights with teachers and friends in school (Stark 69). They show no emotions or any respect to anyone (Bruhn 65). Parents do not care and never pay attention to their children, so children get involved in gang fights. They do not care whether any one does not like them, because they are brought up from a home where there is no concern for the society (Kurland 63). Studies reported that there are fifty-three percent children that are in prison becoming violent because of seeing violence at home (Edleson 1). Growing up in a violent home is a terrifying and traumatic experience that can affect every aspect of a childs growth and development. Children who do not know how to deal with these problems and who are often seeing violence can become depressed, because they feel helpless and powerless (Berger 11). Due to feeling they tend to not do much around the house or in school, because of domestic violence some also take all the blame and fell embarrassed to leave the house. That makes some children refuse to go to school, which makes some children not wanting to go to school (Stark 49). These problems that children experience are often both immediate and long-term, but the impact of these effects depends on may factors, such as the age of the child and the frequency of type of violence that occurred or is occurring. Resources Rachels Story. (n.d.). The WTV Zone A WebTV friendly homepage and website provider where webtv users can build websites and homepages with little restriction web tv users welcome!. Retrieved April 4, 2010, from http://www.wtv-zone.com/LadyMaggie/php/rachel.html ACADV: Children And the Effects of Domestic Violence. (n.d.). Home The Alabama Coalition Against Domestic Violence. Retrieved March 27, 2010, from http://www.acadv.org/children.html Behind Closed Doors. (n.d.). unicef.org. Retrieved March 25, 2010, from www.unicef.org/media/files/BehindClosedDoors.pdf Effects of Domestic Violence on Children and Adolescents: An Overview. (n.d.). American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress. Retrieved March 26, 2010, from http://www.aaets.org/article8.htm Effects of Domestic Violence on Children and Teenagers ~ FindCounseling.com. (n.d.). Find a Therapist at FindCounseling.com, The Original Therapist Finder Search Engine, Formerly TherapistFinder.net. Retrieved March 26, 2010, from http://www.findcounseling.com/journal/domestic-violence/domestic-violence-children.html Kelsey Briggs (2002 2005). (n.d.). Kelsey Briggs (2002 2005). Retrieved April 4, 2010, from http://kelsey-briggs.memory-of.com/About.aspx
Friday, October 25, 2019
Existentialist Themes of Anxiety and Absurdity In a world with such a vast amount of people there exists virtually every different belief, thought, and ideology. This means that for every argument and every disagreement that their exists two sides of relative equal strength. It is through these disagreements that arguments are formed. Arguments are the building blocks in which philosophers use to analyze situations and determine theories of life. For the purpose of this paper I will try and argue my personal beliefs on a specific argument. This argument is presented in a form of a question and upon examination of the contents of this question, several different and unique questions arise. In order to support my theory as to the answer to this question I will attempt to answer the three subquestions which deal less with the content of the question itself and more with the reaction to reading the question. Also key to the support of my theory is the concept of existentialism. I will go into the foundations of this ethical theory throughout the remainder of this paper. Subquestion one, Ã¢â¬Å"E --> CÃ¢â¬ , simple asks whether it is true or false that if you have an ethical theory then does it have to be consistent. Subquestion two, Ã¢â¬Å"(?) --> HÃ¢â¬ , poses the idea of what makes up the essence of being a human being. Subquestion three, Ã¢â¬Å"E --> (H --> M)Ã¢â¬ , asks whether it is true or false that it is ethical to assume that humans should be given moral priority over animals. I order to support my interpretation and answer the topic question, I will try to explain my personal ethical theory. We were given several different theories in which to emulate or pick pieces of in order to define such words which have different meanings to different people. For such vague words such as `right' and `wrong', the context in which they are presented are vital pieces in order to define them. It is my belief, and a necessary requirement of this paper to somehow define these two words. It is obvious that these two words must be opposites of each other. Therefore, the understanding of one will easily lead to the understanding of its opposite. However, the words themselves will never be anything more than five letters grouped together. This is because your ethical theory and someone else's ethical theory could possible conflict causing for a discrepan... ...kill as a means of survival. At this point in time it is only necessary to kill certain animals as a form of food source and for other luxury items. There have been times when it was necessary for humans to kill an animal for food. I wonder if a person who did not eat meat would starve to death if the only thing to eat was meat? And as long as we do not over kill a certain species then they will continue to reproduce and the food chain will continue to work. Being descendants of other living things, humans must insure that nature is let to work on it own, continuing to do what it has done for many years. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In response to subquestion one, I do not feel that it is possible to remain consistent in any ethical theory in which you live by. This is mainly because every ethical theory that I now of is entirely too focused and usually not completely relevant to every circumstance. The more broad your definition or theory is then the closer you come to the only one that will always work. The less you say what you can and cant do, the closer you come to saying nothing. Once you have generalized your theory so much that you eliminated everything then you are stuck with
Thursday, October 24, 2019
uno and the Paycock Ã¢â¬Å"OÃ¢â¬â¢CaseyÃ¢â¬â¢s women in Juno and the Paycock are strong and admirable charactersÃ¢â¬ . Juno and Mary BoyleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives arenÃ¢â¬â¢t very pleasant in this 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s play which is separated into three acts which contain a mixture of both tragic and humorous elements. Juno, the wife of Captain Boyle, is the mother of two children who are in constant need of attention from her. Furthermore, as the play continues this need of attention grows with the facts of financial difficulties, the pregnancy of Mary (daughter) and also her sonÃ¢â¬â¢s, Johnny, death in the end.OÃ¢â¬â¢Casey clearly shows that Juno certainly has her work cut out for her, as she is not only the one person in the family who has a job, but also she is the house-wife and must render her family by making all the meals, going to buy the groceries, doing any form of house work and looking after the family in general. For example, on page 8 she says, Ã¢â¬Å"I killinÃ¢â¬â¢ mese lf workinÃ¢â¬â¢,Ã¢â¬ and also on page 12 she says, Ã¢â¬Å"Your poor wife slavinÃ¢â¬â¢ to keep the bit in your mouthÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ these two references show just how hard Juno works to keep her family happy and alive. This is not made any easier when Mr.Boyle spends any money Juno has saved, in hope for any decent future for the family, on alcohol in the local pub. Therefore Juno cannot afford any type of luxuries for herself as she definitely does deserve it. The poverty is evident on page 12 in JunoÃ¢â¬â¢s comment to Mr. Boyle, Ã¢â¬Å"eat your breakfastÃ¢â¬ ¦ it may be the last youÃ¢â¬â¢ll get for I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know where the next one is goin to come from. Ã¢â¬ But even this will not cause concern for JunoÃ¢â¬â¢s principles when on page six we learn that Juno is against Trade Unions, Ã¢â¬Å"When the employers sacrifice wan victim, the Trade Unions go wan betther be sacrificinÃ¢â¬â¢ a hundred. Then Mary tells her that, Ã¢â¬Å"a principleÃ¢â¬â¢s a principleÃ¢â¬ , but Juno stays realistic and thinks well itÃ¢â¬â¢s all good and well having principles Ã¢â¬â if you can afford them. She is the one who seems to keep the family as a unit and this is evidently shown when Juno says, Ã¢â¬ËI donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what any oÃ¢â¬â¢ yous ud do without your maÃ¢â¬â¢. Juno is a well respected member of the family and might even be superior to Mr. Boyle and Joxer, a family friend, because when the pair is talking on page nine, Mrs. Boyle enters and both are said to be Ã¢â¬ËstupefiedÃ¢â¬â¢.After this, she offers him an egg, and he makes the excuse that heÃ¢â¬â¢s in a desperate hurry Ã¢â¬â this may be because he does not want to spend much time there with Juno. Also the fact that Mr. Boyle lies on page thirteen about the fact he was drinking may indicate he was scared of JunoÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction if he had have told the truth, but later on in the same page we see that Juno will take no nonsense from her husband when he says he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t w ant any food and she just says, Ã¢â¬â¢NobodyÃ¢â¬â¢s goinÃ¢â¬â¢ to coax you-donÃ¢â¬â¢t think that. This suggests sheÃ¢â¬â¢s a strong person, and if she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t take nonsense from her husband, she wonÃ¢â¬â¢t take any nonsense from anyone else. Johnny is a man who relies on a woman to bring him all that needs, displaying men to be controversially the weaker sex. He uses his Ã¢â¬ËsicknessÃ¢â¬â¢ to demand Juno to bring him glasses of water, when he could have easily fetched one himself.Even worse though, is that he is generally very bad-tempered towards his mother, constantly asking her to do things for him, which wears Juno down and makes her irritable, and ensures that she is nearly always in a bad frame of mind because she is never in this state unless annoyed by a family member, so she has her causes for being in bad moods whereas Mr. Boyle has none whatsoever. Then, when she specks out to JohnnyÃ¢â¬â¢s complaining, it is with fervent remonstrance, she Ã¢â¬Ë criesÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Å" who has kept thÃ¢â¬â¢ home together for the past few years Ã¢â¬â only me? An whoÃ¢â¬â¢ll have to bear thÃ¢â¬â¢ biggest part oÃ¢â¬â¢ this trouble, but me? but whininÃ¢â¬â¢ an whinginÃ¢â¬â¢ isnÃ¢â¬â¢t goinÃ¢â¬â¢ to do any good. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â this point is typical of the way Juno reacts to and deals with life. Juno knows what is important in life and when Johnny talks about his principles, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢d do it agen ma; for a principleÃ¢â¬â¢s a principle. Ã¢â¬ To which Juno replies Ã¢â¬Å"Ah, you lost your best principle, me boy, when you lost your arm; themÃ¢â¬â¢s the only sort oÃ¢â¬â¢ principles thatÃ¢â¬â¢s any good to a workin man. Ã¢â¬ This shows she thinks that fighting for your country and getting injured or dying isnÃ¢â¬â¢t going to solve anything, but bring grief, and more work.JunoÃ¢â¬â¢s outlook on life is ultimately more important than the others. She has not lost in principles, like her children, but she ackn owledges whatÃ¢â¬â¢s going on in the world around her Ã¢â¬â which may be the fact of the poverty they live in and the restrictions because of this and also her family which she cares for so much. Mary seems like a confident girl who knows what she is doing all the time, but when Bentham decides to leave her, she loses this spirit. Before this, Mary was trying to better herself and lift herself out of her surrounding environment.This is shown when on page 12 she talks about her principles and wants to belong in the upper class, but feels where she lives may be degrading her. She was always willing to be challenged for example trying to better herself and becoming fully independent towards the end. Mary also becomes very much like her mother as the play proceeds and we see MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s other side, the side who works and it is shown that her mother and she have been brought closer together throughout the story. She now confides in her mother and this is shown at the end when she talks to Juno about Jerry.Also, it is significant that Mary is reading Ibsen plays as they are realistic and unromantic which is similar to this play, but contrasts with her life in general. I see Mary as an admirable person because of these points, but she is not totally sensible because she buys all sorts of luxuries with the money. Religion in Ireland was a very important thing and Mary and her family were catholic. Having sex before marriage was a sin in the eyes of a catholic so Mary was seen as a fallen woman in her culture, and Jerry Devine is one of the people who criticises her for this. My God, Mary, have you fallen as low as that? Ã¢â¬Ë he says when finding out she is pregnant, as would any man in 1922 if they met a woman pregnant with an illegitimate child. Throughout Ã¢â¬Å"Juno and the PaycockÃ¢â¬ , Juno is linked to the Virgin Mary. The Virgin Mary is an archetypal mother figure. OÃ¢â¬â¢Casey likens Juno to the Virgin Mary especially with reference to her relati onship with Johnny; the link is strengthened when, at the end of the play, Johnny is murdered, just like the Virgin MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s son.Additionally, OÃ¢â¬â¢Casey gives Juno the same name as the Roman goddess, wife of Jupiter, King of the gods. Throughout the entire play, she battles against poverty, ignorance, laziness and deceit all to keep her family from disintegrating. The dictionary definition of the word Ã¢â¬ËheroineÃ¢â¬â¢ is Ã¢â¬Å"a woman with the attributes of a heroÃ¢â¬ . We expect our heroines to understand more than those around her and with this in mind I would contend that Juno is indeed the heroine of the play.
Tuesday, October 22, 2019
Publishers: First Published in Great Britain in 1999 by Doubleplay, an imprint of Transworld Publishers, Black Swan edition published 2000, Black Swan edition reissued 2007 Chocolat is a 1999 novel by Joanne Harris. It tells the story of Vianne Rocher, a young single mother, who arrives in the French village of Lansquenet-sous-Tannes at the beginning of Lent with her six-year-old daughter, Anouk. Vianne opens a chocolate shop, La Celeste Praline, right opposite the village church, and throughout the traditional season self-denial Lent, proceeds to gently change the lives of the villagers who visit her chocolaterie with a combination of sympathy, determination and a little magic. This scandalizes the parish priest, Francis Reynaud, and his supporters who are convinced Vivian is evil. As tensions run high, the community is increasingly divided, and as Easter approaches, pitting the ritual of the Church against the indulgence of chocolate, Father Reynaud and Vianne Rocher face an inevitable battle I personally really loved the book; Joanne Harris really did a great job in creating an enticing plot with a bunch of strong and unique characters. My favorite is Anouk who although is only six years old brings such life to the book and manages to give a bit of light heartedness to points where the book can become heavy. This is a wonderful tale of family and magic and hope. It is not your typical romance and well worth the time. The book is a full of strong opinions and characters; Ms. Harris manages to capture your attention with her delicious descriptions and fast moving plot. There really is never a boring moment in this book, its fantastic for anyone who loves books that are thought provoking yet still enjoyable and fun. An Important moment in this book is when Vianne decides the hold the Easter Chocolate Festival. At this point in the book you begin to see the rivalry between Vianne and Father Francis Reynaud through the chocolates and the church. Although the rivalry mostly comes from Father Reynaud, Vianne can feel the dislike he has for her. Many of the townÃ¢â¬â¢s folk really began to divide at this point. We also began to see Reynaud began to go mad with his obsession for Vianne and the destroying of her chocolates. We see Reynaud change quite considerably throughout the book. Francis Reynaud, like any religious man in a small town, has a big influence on all the people of Lansquenet. He is quit oppressive with his views and tends to carry a very much holier than thou attitude towards his parish. At one point in the book he compares himself to a sheapard and how his flock need him Ã¢â¬Å"Sheep are not the docile, pleasant creatures of the pastoral idyll. Any countryman will tell you that. They are sly, occasionally vicious, and pathologically stupid. The lenient shepherd may find his flock unruly, defiant. I cannot afford to be lenient. Ã¢â¬ His suspicions begin with the arrival of Vianne and Anouk and his initial strategy is to try and befriend the enemy. He offers her help in repairing the bakery but she refuses politely, emphasizing that she has got it all under control. He hopes that people will realize that she should be evicted on their own in fear of tarnishing his reputation. His plan works at first as concerned mothers begin to forbid their children from spending time with Anouk, as she plants wild ideas in to their heads. Also business is not running very smoothly at the chocolate shop and Reynaud begins to believe that it is just a matter of time before they leave with the changing of the wind. We see him slowly began to grasp for desperation that he is right that Vianne is evil and that he is still better than all his parishioners. He reaches boiling point when madness and rage take over his mind and he breaks into La Celeste Praline the morning before Mass and gobbles down chocolate after over a month of fasting. His reputation is tarnished and respect vanished. He runs away and is never heard of again. Josephine Muscat first appears as a nervous introvert. She is quiet and slumps when she walks. She is gossiped about and pitied throughout Lansquenet, as the fact that her husband physically abuses her is one of the worst kept secrets around. She does not mutter a word about it and her thoughts are so cloudy that even Vianne, with all her power, fails to understand what lies in her head. With time, Josephine begins to talk to Vianne more and begins to spend more time in the chocolate shop. VianneÃ¢â¬â¢s influence and advice eventually result in Josephine leaving her husband Paul and moving in with Vianne in the chocolateÃ¢â¬â¢s shop spare room. The more time she spends with Vianne, the more JosephineÃ¢â¬â¢s personality blossoms. She now walks with her head held high and has substituted her dark wardrobe for a new, more colorful one. She speaks with an audible, confident voice and can now look people in the eyes. A spark is felt between her and Roux as they indulge in conversation and become closer when she moves to the chocolate shop and he settles in Lansquenet. She even faces Paul one last time on her own. She is transformed from the average, abused housewife to the confident, independent female as the novel develops. Joanne Harris is a very descriptive writer, which you find quite early on in the book. Although she does use quite descriptive writing she does it very well and it transcends into beautiful pieces of writing that are hard to follow Ã¢â¬Å" We came on the wind of the carnival. A warm wind for February, laden with the hot greasy scents of frying pancakes and sausages and powdery-sweet waffles cooked on the to plate right there by the roadside with the confetti sleeting down collars and cuffs and rolling in the gutters like an idiot antidote to winter. Something really interesting about the author is that she mixes French with English. So while most of the book is English, songs, signs or names are still very much French. She also uses her chapters as a way to create a timeline for the book. At the begging of each chapter we receive a date allowing us to process where we are in the year. Joanne Harris is a popular British writer, who has written a total of fourteen books many of which w ere bestsellers. JoanneÃ¢â¬â¢s book Chocolat has been adapted into the Oscar nominated movie staring Johnny Depp and Juliette Binoche. She lives with her Husband and daughter in Yorkshire and her hobbies include Ã¢â¬Å" Mooching, lounging, strutting, strumming, priest-baiting and quite subversion. Ã¢â¬ She can speak both French and English and she was strongly influenced by GrimmÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ Fairy Tales and the tales of Charles Perrault, as well as local folklore and Norse mythology. The cover for Chocolat I think it is very appropriate and gives you a successful looking into the plot before you even look into the book with the bright colours of VianneÃ¢â¬â¢s clothes to the chocolate Easter eggs. By the time you finish the book you complete understand the symbolism of a woman sitting and holding a nest full of Easter Eggs. I think that this book would be suited to mostly older men and woman but it can defiantly appeal to young adults as well. Personally I think it would get to heavy for younger readers and not all would understand the issues brought up in the book. The book has been made into a movie starring Johnny Depp and Juliette Binoche, standing on its own the movie is absolutely fantastic a wonderful love story. Yet when compared along side the book it fails completely. Not only is the book completely different to the movie with a change of couples and villains but also with the plot line it just lacks the darkness found in the book. There is something captivating about the transition from VianneÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts to Father ReynaudÃ¢â¬â¢s and the slow build up of the plot through it. Also I hate the disregarded for the lesser characters in the movie half of the people in the book arenÃ¢â¬â¢t even mentioned in the movie! And although many of them donÃ¢â¬â¢t have huge significant roles they still help shape the story.