Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Pronouncing the RR sound in Spanish can be difficult for some, but its possible to learn! 10 Steps to Master the Spanish RR Sound Keep in mind that there are two R sounds in Spanish: the single R sound and the double R (or RR) sound.Keep in mind that the single R sound is used whenever the single R appears in a word, except when its at the beginning of a word or after an L, N or S, when the RR sound is used.The RR sound is also used to sound the letter combination of rr, which used to be considered a separate letter of the Spanish alphabet.Keep in mind that the Spanish R and RR dont share the distinctive R sound of English. Think of them as separate letters entirely.Remember that the RR is a trilled sound formed by a flapping of the tongue against the front roof of the mouth.Visualize the front of your tongue as a flag flapping in a vigorous breeze.Now try purring like a cat. If youve succeeded, you are approximating the RR sound.Alternatively, relax and pretend youre a child making the sound of a revving-up motor.Another way is to pretend it is extremely cold. Now make the sound of exhaling with your lips flap ping together. Now do the same thing with your tongue against the roof of your mouth.Alternatively, loosely hold the tip of your tongue at the front roof of your mouth. Now try blowing air between the tip of the tongue and roof of your mouth while you partly relax the tongue. Try an Audio Lesson To hear the rr sound in words as spoken by native speakers, listen to an audio lesson on rr. Sample words in this lesson are perro (dog), carro (car), barra (bar, such as one made of metal) and hierro (iron, the metal).
Monday, December 23, 2019
Personnel Economics Application Paper Tournament is a kind of reward system where fixed rewards are used for a fixed group of people and the Ã¢â¬Å"distribution of rewards is based on the order of the participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ performanceÃ¢â¬ (Lazear amp; Oyer, 2009, p. 9). In this particular situation, four agents in one of Mitch amp; MurrayÃ¢â¬â¢s offices are given a strong incentive to succeed in a sales tournament. Mitch amp; Murray uses a set of prizes that diminish in value as a personÃ¢â¬â¢s relative performance gets lower. The top seller will win himself a Cadillac, the second will win himself a set of steak knives, and the others will be out of job (Glengarry Glen Ross, n.d.). In response to the given prizes, four agents react in different ways. For RickyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The good leads are locked in the office managers room and they will not be distributed until the end of the contest. (Glengarry Glen Ross, n.d.). After he realizes that no matter how hard he work, his sales performance will barely improve, he becomes desperate. At that point, the cost of effort for him is too high which makes the prize unachievable, and thus provides no incentive for him to exert effort anymore. With those old leads, luck becomes relatively more important to the final success and effort relatively less important. In such case, workers will try less hard to win because effort has a smaller effect on whether or not they win (Lazear amp; Oyer, 2009, p. 10). This is why he soon gives up working on the old leads but to flatter, threaten, and bribe the office manager to get good leads which can reduce the cost of his effort and diminish the importance of luck. However, the result is quite unexpected Ã¢â¬â His attempt to get good l eads does not work out so he finally helps Dave to steal and sell the good leads to another company. This result may not be explained by tournament theory but can be explained by economic theories Ã¢â¬â Homo economicus all want to maximize their own profit or utility at the lowest cost (Homo economicus, n.d.). Stealing and selling the leads may be a risky move but the profit it brings to Shelly exceeds the risk plus the profit he may gain from working on the old leads, and thatShow MoreRelatedThe Concept of Comparative Advantage1459 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesinternational market place, for items for the production of which they do not possess a comparative advantage (Pullen, 2006). Today, the application of the comparative advantage is revealed mostly at the level of the leading economic powers in the world, who seek to create advantages in terms of exports, and as such maximize their gains (Acharya, 2008). 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Sunday, December 15, 2019
string(65) " to strain the basic public services like hospitals and schools\." INSTITUTE OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT AURANGABAD, INDIA Tourism planning aims at reducing damage which might be caused by tourism while ensuring maximum benefits for the socio-economic development for the nationÃ¢â¬ (Shashi Prabha Sharma, 2004) Abhishek Mohan (H-17005) Module: Tourism Planning and Development Module Tutor: Mr. Subhasis Mandal Ã¢â¬Å"Submitted in fulfillment of the requirement for B. A. We will write a custom essay sample on Tourism Problem in Australia or any similar topic only for you Order Now (Hons. ) in hotel ManagementÃ¢â¬ UNIVERSITY OF HUDDERSFIELD, U. K. Synopsis This essay states the positives and negatives of tourism and the negative impacts that tourism has on different systems of a country such as economic, social and environment. It also focuses on the Tourism industry of Australia and the negative impact it has on the various attractions. It comprises of facts and figures from the tourism extracts of Australia. The essay explains the stages of tourism planning with its importance and function. It will enable the reader to connect the concepts of tourism of planning with the tourism impacts and how it can be beneficial for minimizing the negative impacts. List Of Contents TopicPage Number 1. Introduction 2. Damages Caused by Tourism and its Impacts 3. Tourism Impacts: Australia 4. Tourism Planning 5. Critique 6. Suggestions and Recommendations 7. Conclusion 8. Bibliography Introduction As stated by _________ tourism is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"The temporary movement of people of people to destinations outside their normal places of work and residence, the activities undertaken during their stay in those destinations, and the facilities created to cater to their needsÃ¢â¬ . It is the business of travel with no political, ideological, geographical or cultural boundaries. As a industry it is very vast including wide array of people, activities and facilities. Although tourism is not identified as a distinctive industry but a unique grouping of industries tied together by a common denominator Ã¢â¬â the traveling public. As claimed by the World Tourism Organization (WTO) the tourism industry is currently the worlds largest industry with annual revenues exceeding 3 trillion dollars. The tourism industry is a very old industry dating back up to Mayan period, which developed as civilizations became established and spread geographically. It mostly developed during the empire era, which started from the time of the Egyptians who had centralized government locations. As travel became common, food and lodging had to be provided which started a new wave of growth in the industry. Further the tourism industry is sub divided into various parts on the basis of the major stimuli attracting the people. The most common forms are: Medical tourism, Cultural tourism, sports tourism, eco tourism and many more. The new concept in the industry is of sustainable tourism which involves using all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity. Many countries have tourism as their main economic base, i. e. they totally depend on tourism for their income. Tourism also plays the role of a major income base for many other countries around the globe. In India in the year 1989, tourism marked as the largest foreign exchange earner for the countries. Even developed nations like Canada (which derived 11% of its GDP from the tourism in the year 1989) rely heavily on tourism for their income. Other than this tourism is also one of the most labour intensive industries offering jobs to skilled and semi skilled people. It is a major source of employment for the countries having scarce natural resources which cannot support the economy. Although tourism has been always identified as a industry for growth and development of a nation, but it has an other side also which involves the depletion and damage of the tourist places because of excess movement of travelers and many other reasons. Governments of many countries as well as social firms are now diverted towards the conservation of these unique tourism sites so that their beauty remains intact and they are preserved for the future generations. Tourism is an important human activity of great significance but it has negative sides also which are the social, cultural and political impacts on the region. Damages Caused by Tourism and Their Impacts Tourism is considered as an important factor for a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s development, it has its impacts on the economy as a whole. With the economic impacts it is really important to focus on the impact of tourism on nature, people and cultures of a region. At a certain point of time if tourism is not properly managed it can lead to Ã¢â¬Å"overpopulationÃ¢â¬ of tourists in a region. Every region has its own carrying capacity of the tourists which is divided into three categories: Ã¢â¬ ¢Physical Capacity Ã¢â¬ ¢Environmental Capacity Ã¢â¬ ¢Ecological capacity If the Carrying capacities are not controlled it can lead to multiple problems leading to depletion of tourism in that location. Economic Impact Tourism industry is one of the major industries that have a huge impact on countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. Therefore governments are spending so much on the development of tourism, which in turn helps their economy in terms of GDP growth, employment, and development. It also has an impact on the foreign exchange, it has been seen that tourist arrivals increase with decrease in currency value. Tourism industry stabilizes the economy; even at the time of recession the industry had only minor declines in revenue based on the fact that citizens of most industrial nations have come to view vacationing as a necessity of life. Tourism also provides the economic incentives to developed infrastructure, which in turn can e enjoyed by the residents also. On the negative side overdependence on tourism can lead to a dangerous lack of economic diversity. If the tourism in a totally tourism dependent economy fails then they have no other option to support the economy. Tourism can also highlight too much of a good thing for a region and bring too many visitors to the area, this increased tourist arrivals can lead to increased prices and the increase of population in the region, increased number of residents will lead to strain the basic public services like hospitals and schools. You read "Tourism Problem in Australia" in category "Papers" Environmental Impacts The term environment has been defined in many ways. It can be simply defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a given set of conditions in which one lives and is influenced and in turn influences these set of conditionsÃ¢â¬ . It was only after 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s that people realize that environment is a perishable resource and tourism has bad impacts on the environment too. To provide adequate services to the visitors, a region must first developed the necessary infrastructure to support these services. The development of infrastructure for tourism will have a direct impact on the environment of the area. With increased level of tourist movement on the road as well as the air, there is an increase in the consumption of fuel as well as pollution being spread in the air harming the natural habitat and the forest cover of the region. Historical site detonation is also a cause of major concern. From tourism prospective the environment comprises of the following: 1. Natural environment Ã¢â¬ ¢Beaches Ã¢â¬ ¢Water bodies- lakes, rivers and oceans Ã¢â¬ ¢Hill Stations Ã¢â¬ ¢Caves Ã¢â¬ ¢Forests Ã¢â¬ ¢Wildlife 2. Built Environment: Ã¢â¬ ¢Accommodation and built facilities Ã¢â¬ ¢Transport infrastructure Ã¢â¬ ¢Theme parks Ã¢â¬ ¢Dams and Reservoirs 3. Natural Resources: Ã¢â¬ ¢Air Ã¢â¬ ¢Water Ã¢â¬ ¢Climate- Temperature, rainfall, snow, glaciers etc. Tourism has its impact on environment in many different ways some of them are listed below: Ã¢â¬ ¢Pollution: It is a major impact that tourism has on environment. Transportation facilities used for the movement of tourists over land, sea and air emit harmful gases which damage the natural ecosystem and beauty. One common example is of construction of resorts and lodging facilities inside or very close to wildlife sentries or an historical site which pollute the nearby environment with their waste and construction and other such activities. Ã¢â¬ ¢Depletion of natural resources: With the development of tourism facilities the forest cover of a region gets depleted. The forest wood are also used many times for fuel purposes and careless behavior of tourists also becomes a reason for many forest fires. Other impacts include the bad effect or garbage by tourists, traffic congestion and other such problems. Socio/Cultural Impact Even though a tourist is a temporary resident of a region, but they often leave long lasting impact on the community. Often the tourists visiting the underdeveloped countries have an impact on the clothing, lifestyle and oth er behavioral patterns of the local community. Although the culture is usually used for marketing a region or a community but the tourism has a huge impact on the social and cultural lives of the people of the community. Cultural Impacts: Culture is one of the main stimuli for tourists to travel. Handicrafts, cultural events, traditional dressing, religion, dance, music, folktales etc. generally attract them. Apart from creating awareness about one anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s culture, tourism has marked influence on many aspects of a societyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. when tourists visit an unknown destination and are unaware about local customs and practices, a conflict situation may arise. Culture shock and cultural arrogance are often the reasons that create conflicts between the tourists and the host communities. Culture shock results from witnessing a totally different lifestyle or behavior by the tourist or the host. Lack of communication or understanding can cause such situations. Culture and Authenticity: Mass tourism has resulted in a shift from natural authentic culture to contrived culture and tourism planners are fulfilling the quest for knowing and enjoying the culture. While tourism helps in preservation of culture and rejuvenation of traditional art forms, sometimes locals cannot meet the demands or sell the handicrafts at low prices. The demand for large quantity of artifacts at cheaper prices has led to commercialization of material culture, which is either mass produced in a factory or imported, from abroad. In both cases there is loss of authenticity. This may lead to misunderstandings and disappointments for both tourists and residents. Handicrafts are time consuming and authentic crafts involve a lot of effort while the number of articles produced per day is low. Mass produced or factory produced crafts are cheaper and often the tourists are disappointed to note that the artifact purchased in one country has the manufacturing label of another country. Impacts On Society: The socio cultural impact of tourism varies from destination to destination depending on the nature of tourism, attitude of hosts, background of the tourists and the strengths and weaknesses of the destination. Below are listed some of the negative socio cultural impacts of tourism. Ã¢â¬ ¢Rural-urban migration Ã¢â¬ ¢Disruption of lifestyle Ã¢â¬ ¢Staged authenticity Ã¢â¬ ¢Narcotics and drug abuse Ã¢â¬ ¢Deceased use of local languages Ã¢â¬ ¢Health issues, HIV/AIDS, Avian flu etc. Ã¢â¬ ¢Prostitution, pedophilia, Homosexuality etc. Ã¢â¬ ¢Alcoholism Ã¢â¬ ¢Crime- pick pocketing, mugging, rape, murder Ã¢â¬ ¢Money laundering Disrespect of local customs Although tourism cannot be blamed for all social evils, it is a known fact that the presence of strangers, temporary visitors, floating populations, or even the armed forces may influence such social problems. Tourism Impacts: Australia Tourism is an extremely important industry in Australia. The industry has been credited for creating jobs and generating a great deal of income for the nation. In the year 2003-04 it roughly contributed 4% towards AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP, it also employed around 5. 6% of Australian workforce and made up 12% of all exports. People from around the world are attracted towards Australia for its unique attractions like the Great Barrier Reef, Tropical Rainforests and a rich indigenous heritage. It has a very well established infrastructure set up for tourism. Environmental Impact: There are many examples of tourism having impacted negatively on the physical environment. Over-development along coastal strips (such as the Gold Coast in Queensland) has created ecological problems for many of AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s beautiful beaches. Plants and shrubs have been removed from rainforests to make room for walking trails. Recreational activities such as four-wheel driving have destroyed sand dunes and vegetation, and bottom-trawling in the Great Barrier Reef has had adverse effects on biodiversity. Visitors have dumped non-biodegradable rubbish into previously unspool ecosystems, the construction of sea walls and marinas for the benefit of humans has disrupted natural erosion processes of marine and estuarine environments, and the growing presence of humans in remote areas lacking infrastructure has caused significant waste management problems. These are just a few of the negative effects that increased human traffic caused by tourism has had on AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s natural environment. Heron Island is an example of an ecotourism destination located on AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s Great Barrier Reef. The University of Queensland runs the Heron Island Research Program on the island and visitors are encouraged to participate in activities organized by the research center, such as coral-coding, which contribute to the areaÃ¢â¬â¢s ecological well-being. Over 1. 5 million people visit the Australian Alps national parks annually (Good and Grenier 1994; Good 1995). Winter and summer tourism and recreation active- ties can have negative environmental impacts, such as trampling of vegetation, introduction and spread of weeds, littering, and nutrient enrichment of soils and water (Good 1992; Good and Grenier 1994; Buckley et al 2000; Pickering et al 2001; Eagles et al 2002; New- some et al 2002). Social/Cultural Impacts: Often, in a rush to develop the tourism industry, the social impacts are often overshadowed by the short-term gains, despite the fact that the essential composition of the host society will have a significant influence on the potential success of the development. Perhaps the greatest tragedy of the effects of tourism in Australia is its displacement of local residents, who are unable to afford the dramatic increases in the costs of living arising from the tourist prices for commodities. Tourism has also been associated with an increasing crime rate, from prostitution, gambling and drug abuse, and the tensions and dangers these factors create in local communities is equally responsible for resident displacement and subsequently, a general disintegration of community morale. Tourists to Australia in recent years have become increasingly interested in exploring the cultural diversity of Australia from the traditional Anglo-Saxon lifestyle, to those of the various ethnic groups and particularly of the indigenous peoples. To a considerable extent, this has enhanced the mutual intercultural understanding and awareness between all parties, and significant management actions have been undertaken to incorporate culture into tourism. Economic Impact: Tourism is often seen as Ã¢â¬Å"the solutionÃ¢â¬ to economic hardship but in Australia it is rather diversifying the local economy. Small communities started to become reliant on tourism which drew labor away from staple industries such as agriculture and manufacture. Tourism Planning Tourism planning basically involves predicting the future, setting goals and objectives to attain the desired outcomes in the future. Planning is an important phase in any industry or organization. However, because of involvement of so many diversified organizations in the tourism industry it is not easy to plan. The planning process is a combination of processes to develop as well as sustain the tourism revenues. A wide variety of decisions are made which include the timing of development, size of infrastructure, promotional campaigns, and efforts to serve tourist places. Planning must include studies of the increased burdens on natural resources as well as basic infrastructure like roads, protection, water supply etc. so that the burden on these resources can be minimized. Planning is a continuous process and plans should be revised continuously according to the present conditions and tourist arrivals and on the basis of study of various surveys. It is also a very important phase, which will determine the future of the tourism in a region so the authority to plan usually rests with the government. Research on new industry trends should be conducted continuously to keep up with the planning process by using the information derived from those researches. Key Steps to take care for tourism planning The planning process should lay out how the government or the leading authority can maximize benefits from tourism while minimizing environmental damage and conflict with local stakeholders; it should reflect national tourism policy and development plans. A tourism plan may be part of the management plan, a stand-alone document, or combined with a site tourism development plan if tourism is important. It should give: 1. An explanation of the objectives of tourism and recreation, the activities to be encouraged or excluded in different zones, and the amenities to be provided; 2. The national context (e. g. tourism growth rates, impact of global or national socio-economic events) and policies concerning tourism development; 3. Carrying capacity and limits of acceptable change; . User fees and other income from tourism and local visitors, recognizing that the latter are likely to provide less revenue but that their support for the government is essential; and the extent to which tourism/ recreation is expected to provide income in a certain area; 5. Interpretation and education activities 6. Recognition that tourism activities and infrastructure must respect International regulations and national legislation; these should meet required s tandards and demonstrate best practices; 7. The roles of government agencies, the private sector and local communities in tourism development in and adjacent to the region, and any potential or existing conflict between this and other economic activities; 8. Monitoring key parameters to monitor include visitor trends, social and environmental impact of visitors, quality of the service provided, whether visitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs are being met, etc. Critique Australia is among the top 10 tourist destinations of Asia pacific with 5. 89 million tourist arrivals in the year 2010. It is famous for its beaches, wildlife and the coral reefs on of them being the Great Barrier Reef. Australia has a sophisticated and developed infrastructure to cater the tourism needs and the government has been able to properly harness the natural beauty of the country. There is an increasing demand for sports tourism in Australia and also educational tourism with the expansion of good Australian universities. Increasing number of foreign arrivals also lead to many difficult situations and problems, which the government has to cope up with. One most recent issue, which happened, was the case of racial discrimination brought up on several Indian students for a long time, which involved mob fights, and even more serious problems, which the foreign students faced. This happened mostly because of the increase in Indian students going to Australia and settling down there only. After this incident Australia has seen a decline in foreign student exchange programs. One more major incident that came up in news was about the Great Barrier Reef, which are a world famous UNESCO world heritage site and a crown to AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s tourist destinations. Due to many natural as well as man made reasons there has been a depletion of the reef since 1998. In current scenario the reef generates income over A$7 billion annually and is a optimal destination for scuba divers and other water sports enthusiasts. On a negative side tourism rarely had much impact on AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. With the development of the tourism industry it provided jobs to unskilled as well as semi skilled workers, which in turn shifted the workforce from basic agriculture and farming jobs to the industry. Suggestions and recomendations Australia has a very particular and a strict tourism plan for monitoring tourism in the country, instead of this there are some problems which it needs to take care of which were earlier stated above. Australia should form norms and regulations for the protection of local people as well as the tourists to prevent the mishaps that haven been accuring in the future, this can also include setting up a new infrastructure or a whole new security system for the tourists. Australia also needs to maintain its tourist intake capacity because inviting more and more tourists and earning money is not the only thing, there are negative sides to it also. One can see the results of increasing tourists in Australian Alps and the Reefs in Australia. The pollution and the waste material left back by the tourists serves as a harmful element to the nature and its beauty. It can also lead to more tourists coming to visit than the carrying capacity of the region, so to revent all this the australian government should take steps at an early stage to monitor tourism for the betterment of nation as well as the tourists. The conflict between the local industries and the tourism industry should be solved in Australia. This conflict can lead to a worse later stage which will damage the job structure and economy of Australia. All other industries including the tourism industry should be interdependent on each other catering to each others needs. Conclusion Keeping Australi a tourism in the center has made this project. Australian tourism has seen a drastic increase in the previous years. Australia also features in the top 10 tourist arrivals in the Asia pacific. In spite of many negative impacts of tourism on the country as a whole the tourism continues to grow in the same pace. Recently the government has taken necessary measures to cope with the problems. Tourism planning is a plays an important role in the formation of strategies and rules for the tourist arrivals. It is a complex and continuous process which involves the involvement of more than one authoritative body. Bibliography Social and Cultural impacts Of Tourism. (2004). Retrieved 2011, from http://www. gawler. sa. gov. au/webdata/resources/files/5_Gawler_Impacts_Tourism. PDF The Tourism Industry in Australia. (2003). Retrieved from http://www. skwirk. com. au/p-c_s-16_u-140_t-417_c-1468/tourism/nsw/tourism/issues-in-australian-environments/geographical-issues-human-elements Catherine Marina Pickering, e. a. (2003). Environmental Impacts of Tourism on the Australia. Mountain research and Development . Roy A. cook, e. a. Tourism Tge Business of Travel. Dorling Kindersley. How to cite Tourism Problem in Australia, Papers
Saturday, December 7, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Study of UK Level of Unemployment. Answer: Introduction This essay mainly concerns UK level of unemployment. In this course of study I have highlighted the trends in the rate of unemployment since the year 2000 shown with the help of a diagram and various policy measures adopted by the UK government to reduce unemployment. This essay embodies the meaning of unemployment its types and stated why unemployment is a crucial word to be considered to have a smooth and healthy running economy. This study explains the calculation of rate of unemployment and various methods. Meaning of unemployment and its type: - Condition of unemployment is a condition when an individual looking for job is not able to find job. Condition of unemployment is usually used to measure o the health of the economy. It is necessary to know the no. of people who have work and those who dont have. Some People in school, some at home, handicap, or retired. These people are not included in employed people and are not counted for measuring rate of unemployment .It includes people actually searching a job or going to start a job are Considered unemployed.( Princeton, New Jersey) Types of unemployment: Cyclical unemployment: Cyclical unemployment prevails in case an individual loses his job during downfall in the business. Mainly it prevails when country produces less Gross Domestic Product (GDP). When the country produces less GDP for 6month or more, then it's in a slowdown. Structural unemployment: prevails when change in the markets or advanced technologies make the skills of certain workers outdated. Regional unemployment: this type of unemployment prevails when a worker is unable to shift his location. Classical unemployment: this type of unemployment comes when net earnings are kept higher than the market clearing wage rate, resulting excessive supply of labor. Seasonal unemployment: prevails in case there are seasonal variations in industries, especially construction industries that are affected by the weather. Frictional unemployment: prevails when lesser information prevents workers and employers to know each other. Voluntary unemployment: prevails whenever there are general changes in business activity. Why is unemployment not neglected: because if person is unemployed that means they dont have income and is unable to meet their basic needs and requirement .which affects our health and economy of our country. More people without job means more poverty that means they have limited or no access to goods and At the same time, unemployment has severe effects on gross domestic product of country because GDP is countrys monetary value .For example, an increase in construction jobs might show improving construction work. That is why unemployment rate is considered an indicator of economic growth. (Megan, M, July 8 2011) Consequences of Unemployment: Lesser production Loss of individuals earning Loss of tax revenue. Unequal distribution of income and wealth Unemployed individuals are individuals earning less who are not able to spend much money on goods n services. (Megan, M) Measuring unemployment in the UK Measurement of unemployment of a particular country at times proves difficult determining economic growth within an economy for several reasons. One- economist may disagree over what unemployment is, and how to measure it. Two-, individuals may either not wish it be known they are unemployed (i.e. not claim benefits) or on the other hand claim that they are unemployed when they are not. In the UK the two main measures of unemployment are: explained with the help of a chart below: The Claimant count method and ILO - Labor Force Survey ILO (International labor organization) Labor Force Survey: This is made using the ILO criteria to make comparison of unemployment. The method involves: Whether people are without work, want a work, have actually found work within few days, and are going to start work in the next few days. Labor Force survey knows from people whether they are working or not, and if they are searching for a job. Comprises of some people not counted for JSA, This method also helps in international comparisons. However some problems of labor force survey and Claimant count method makes it difficult to compare. (Economics online) Trends and Level of unemployment since 2000: shown in the diagram below The most important measure of unemployment is the unemployment rate. Calculation of the level of unemployment and it is calculated in percent by dividing the total number of individuals without work by all individuals doing job. During economic slowdown, usually a country has a high level of unemployment rate. (Trading economics) Various UK Government policies to reduce unemployment: Financial aid for Employment: Government gives financial aid to firms that run on the long-term. People without work will create a benefit for industries to increase their no. of labors. Employment financial aid may also be available for firm. Implementation of Fiscal and Monetary policies: One of the theories of unemployment highlights the fact that if monetary and fiscal policy does not show demand up then the country is not much expected to reach rate of employment which proves good for countries health. A growing economy provides work for people willing to start work. It also, provides employment vacancies for people not working and searching for work. , increased aggregate demand is not always to be met by employing more labor. Reduced wage system: The point is that Classical/real wage unemployment is caused by the Inability of wages to fall to their equilibrium level. Hence to improve this type of unemployment you have to take away the causes of reduced wage system such: Completely abolishing minimum wage system Reduction of Trade union allow to keep wages high for their members Excessive unemployment benefits that mean that workers and employers Are not allowing wages to fall because when they fall they may be at a similar level to unemployment benefit and there would be no incentive to work. Increase the Supply of Labor: when unemployment occurs due to the fact that many in the labor force are unwilling or unable to work (often due to inadequate or out of date skills). If people from the inactive labor force are transferred to the active labor force you will reduce the Natural rate of Unemployment known by another name as voluntary unemployment, which prevails when the economy is at full employment. By changing working age: This will help because people till the age of 17 should be allowed to continue to education and training and from 2015 until they turn 18 will continue in education or training. (Gov.UK, March 16 2016) Unemployment policies are designed to: Make skills better / Increase persons earning to make people hardworking at work place, give bigger benefit to search and take work. Increase the work and regional transferability of labor. Secure enough of demand to give more enough new jobs. Supports entrepreneurs, make way of generating new products advanced and high market demand result in providing improved work vacancies. ( Tejvan, P, November 14 2011) Conclusion The word unemployment is an alarming tone for the survival of the country. The only solution to end the level of unemployment is to prepare the youth towards the welfare of the county. Industrialization should be given top preference that would lead to employment opportunities for the youths by contributing stability to the country. Intense unemployment rate of a country results to social and economic problems in the country. Economic problems leads to less productivity, less income distribution, fallen tax revenues, less GDP rate etc. References: Princeton, New Jersey, 1942.The concept of unemployment, The Quarterly Journal of Economic,vol.57,no.1, pp. 1-30 Megan, M, July 8 2011.Why unemployment matter The Atlantic, Retrieved June 3 2016, from https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2011/07/why-unemployment-matters/241658/. Tejvan, P, January 24 2016.The UK unemployment mystery, retrieved June 3 2016, from https://www.economicshelp.org/blog/6744/unemployment/the-uk-unemployment-mystery/ Economics online, Measurement of UK unemployment, Retrieved June 3 2016, fromhttps://economicsonline.co.uk/Managing_the_economy/Measuring_unemployment.html Trading economics, trends in level of unemployment of UK, Retrieved June 3 2016, from https://www.tradingeconomics.com/united-kingdom/unemployment-rate Tejvan, P, November 14 2011. Policies for Reducing Unemployment, Retrieved June 3 2016, fromhttps://www.economicshelp.org/blog/3881/economics/policies-for-reducing-unemployment/ Tutor2u.net, Unemployment Main Causes of Unemployment, Retrieved June 4 2016, Fromhttps://www.tutor2u.net/economics/reference/unemployment-causes-ofunemployment. Gov.UK, March 16 2016.Policy paper budget2016, Retrieved June 4 2016, from https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/budget-2016-documents/budget-2016.
Friday, November 29, 2019
Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt ?The life of Theodore Roosevelt (1858?1919) was one of constant activity, immense energy, and enduring accomplishments. As the twenty-sixth President of the United States, Roosevelt was the wielder of the Big Stick, the builder of the Panama Canal, an avid conservationist, and the nemesis of the corporate trusts that threatened to monopolize American business at the start of the century. His exploits as a Rough Rider in the Spanish-American War and as a cowboy in the Dakota Territory were indicative of his spirit of adventure and love of the outdoors. Reading and hunting were lifelong passions of his; writing was a lifelong compulsion.? After graduating magna cum laude, from the Harvard University, Theodore began to lay the building blocks for his public career. He began one of the most historic political careers ever. Roosevelt put his early political years in these words, ?I rose like a rocket?. After being a New York Assemblyman, United States Civil Commissioner, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Roosevelt played a significant role in the Spanish-American War. The Spanish, who once thrived in the new world, really only controlled Cuba now. But the Cubans attempted several times to receive their independence. The Cubans were mistreated, so the United States stepped in. War was declared against Spain by the United States. As the war went on Roosevelt began a group called the Rough Riders. This group consisted of largely cowboys, Indians, and college athletes. The group was led by Teddy and Colonel Leonard Wood. On June 30, the Rough Riders marched to Santiago. Then On July 1, the Rough Riders played a huge role in the American victory at San Juan Hill. Now with the Hills, Teddy the Rough Riders and the rest of the American troops, were ready to attack Santiago. Later, because Spain could not fight anymore, Spain asked for a peace agreement. Now Teddy was a war hero, this is nothing but help his chances for the U.S. President spot. After holding the governor spot over New York, Theodore ran as Vice President with William McKinley. On September 6, 1901 President McKinley was assassinated by, a anarchist named Leon Czolgosz. And the Rough Rider, cowboy, was now the President of the United States. ?Although only 42, by far the youngest president in the nation's history up to that time, Roosevelt brought solid qualifications to the office.? ? No event had a more profound effect on Theodore Roosevelt's political career.? As the President, Roosevelt look out for the best interest of the United States. In dealing with business, President Roosevelt was determined to see that no ?Big Business? had a monopoly. As a result in early 1902, the attorney-general was ordered by Teddy to file a suit against The Northern Securities Company, which was a railroad investment company. The company controlled 3 major railroads in the Northwest. The Northwest Securities Company was charged with being a monopoly, under the Sherman Antitrust Act. The Supreme Court later ruled on the case a said the Northern Securities Company must be broken up because they were ?combination in restraint of trade.? Because of the success that Roosevelt won in this case, he brought charges on over 40 more Big Businesses. The most important businesses broken up by the Supreme Court, as a result of Roosevelt's actions were the Standard Oil Company and the American Tobacco Company. Because the antitrust cases were took so long to get to the Supreme Court, Roosevelt asked Congress to pass the Expedition Act, which sped the process. Roosevelt did not discriminate big businesses simply because they were big, he looked for the businesses that posed a threat to the public. ?Roosevelt's action against big businesses won him the title ?trust buster'. One of the biggest challenge Roosevelt took on was getting the Panama Canal built. The United States and Great Britain signed a treaty which gave the U.S. exclusive rights to build, and operate a canal in Central America. There was some disagreement where the canal would be built, but the final decision was Panama, where a French company had been digging but went bankrupt. In June of 1902 congress passed the Isthmian Canal Act, which authorized the purchase of the French land for $40 million. But the United States also had to get control of the canal zone from what was then Colombia. Secretary of State made an agreement with Thomas Herran to purchase, the right to control the land, for $10 million plus $250,000 yearly. The U.S. Senate accepted it but, the Colombian senate rejected the offer, hoping to get more money. At this point Roosevelt considered taking the land by force. He called them(Colombian senate) corrupted, and he said they were trying to black-mail the United States. But the people who lived in Panama were resentful to Colombia government, and a revolt was
Monday, November 25, 2019
Sleep Disorders essays The effect between the number hours asleep and performance on tests. The problem is that if the number hours sleeping will effect what you will do the next day. Or, does the hours sleeping have no effect on what happens the next day. Does the hours asleep really effect performances we meet the following day? Do people feel better if they had the right hours asleep the night before? Do they feel more relaxed and more devoted on what they are doing if they get the right hours asleep. I went to articles to pursue this topic and found out a lot of information about it. There were many different studies on sleeping disorders and being deprived of sleep. This problem has been around for awhile. A lot of people ave done experiments on the effects of seeping. People always wondered about if sleep has an effect on how we live the next day. They might think that you would not does as well if not given enough sleep the night before. But does sleep has an effect on our performance on any given thing. Glory Cochrane wrote an article on the effects of sleep deprivation. She wrote about sleep loss has negative effects on three basic areas, motor performance, cognitive functions, and mood. It has the strongest effect on mood and weakness on motor functions. She also says that any loss of sleep can have varying effects on an individuals ability to deal with day today situations. An author of science news named B. Bower also wrote an article on sleep deprivation. He wrote that sleep deprived people display generally lower brain activity while grappling with math problems than do when rested. He also wrote that the build up sleep promoting substances, such as adenosine, in the prefrontal cortex of sleepy individuals may cause that area to work harder when confronted ...
Friday, November 22, 2019
Community Health - Essay Example There are some similarities between the two concepts of community and aggregate. Both are populations of people who are associated with each other and share some characteristics. However there are also differences between the two concepts. The largest difference is in the interaction between the two. An aggregate of people are a population who share a common interest, where those in a community do not necessarily share common interests, it is likely to be other factors which unite them. Both those in an aggregate and those in a community share common problems and often common goals. The difference between the two concepts is that those in an aggregate do not act together to realize these goals or solve their problems whereas those in a community do interact and work together in this pursuit (Undergraduate Curriculum Handbook, 2003). An example of an aggregate within the community is homeless clients (Clark, 2002). There are many homeless people across America and there are many subdivisions within the aggregate. The aggregate could be considered in terms of various subgroups such as homeless children, homeless women, homeless immigrants and so forth.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Diabetes type 2 treatment and prevention - Research Paper Example 2011). This brings us to the question; what is diabetes? Bethesda, M. (2008) describes diabetes as a disorder that affects the way the body utilizes digested food for energy and growth. Candib, L. (2007) says that biological factors contribute to the offspring chances of getting diabetes. Tuomilehto, et al (2011) says that the good news is that diabetes may be prevented despite it being a hereditary disease, evidence proves that diabetes may be delayed or prevented in persons at high risk (those with impaired glucose regulation). Clinical research has proved that those at risk of developing diabetes have a 50% chance of not developing it provided they follow a healthy lifestyle; this includes a healthy diet, maintaining a healthy body weight and increasing the level of physical activity. Frank, B. (2011) suggests that obesity and overweight are the leading contributors to diabetes. He says that the majority of adults in the developing countries is affected the most. Tuomilehto, et al, (2011) suggests that obesity can be prevented or reduced by encouraging people to do physical exercise, improving on their eating habits; this may be achieved by eating smaller portions and choosing healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables and by eating boiled foods that have less cholesterol and change of lifestyle;. He further suggests the following as ways of preventing obesity; change of family eating habits and activities rather than focusing on weight reduction. Parents should act as role models for their children; they may do this by eating healthy and increasing their level of physical exercise Bethesda, M. (2008) says that in addition to being obese and overweight the age of above 45 years is also a risk factor for developing diabetes. He further suggests those with the age of above 45 years should go for regular medical checkups, which should be repeated at least every 3
Monday, November 18, 2019
State of African Americans in the United States Early 1900's - Essay Example The Afro-Americans political experience can be explained by social injustices and liberals which forsake other elements of its past liberal which Dunn (1998) explains that it is what made America what it has become today. For example, labor movements, RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s trust busting, and Johnson Great Society, as well as other civil studies that took place in America back in 1920. Looking back at Afro-American history, it becomes obvious that its social issues drove the electorate of the country through out the 20th century. However, the most important thing to understand is that the social issues shifted to various forms of parties and because of these, the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s social electorate changed its economic platform. Some of them were slaves who served in rich white men land. However, historical figures like Washington educational legacy helped transform the condition of Afro-Americans in the twenty first century, and transformed them into liberal thinking and conservative bla ck towards their economic success. Mathew (2006) asserts that Washington was a supporter of Afro-Americans education, who helped broaden their minds to a culture that included classics and Latin exploration. He had planned for their education in order to ensure that they had economic success and status. The legal rights in the South have changed over the past 30 years, especially from the time of Civil war to today. For example, the social conservatism helped in shaping American politics. Washington and Fonvielle helped the Afro-Americans in changing their legal rights by advocating for equal rights to each American citizen (Rubel, 2005). This kind of proclamation emancipation helped the African Americans to unite with the army in order to make a rapid progress like the white soldiers. The army tried to change the mind of their citizens as well as influence the legislative in terms of their legal rights. Additionally, from the time of civil war to today, Democratic Party was seen as a party of South. The party having being termed as common-manÃ¢â¬â¢ party, it is said to have favored the working class in terms of economic matters (Rubel, 2005).The south was therefore, a democratic region, but when it shifted its gear to republican, the economic implications changed. This is because, when blacks got the right to vote, they voted for the Republican Party because of Lincoln who was reconstructing the South at the time. They also wanted both economic and social change, for example, capitalism. and liberalism. The significance of the recent movement of Afro-Americans from South to North showed that there is free movement of people from one place to another, Rubel (2005). After the civil war, the South were still farmers, where the Democratic Party represented them. The movement of the South to North was mostly to escape from the slavery bonds and therefore, decided to move to the Free states. This was as a result of the Abolitionists like WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s and F rontier advocacy who were working underground to guide the Afro-Americans into freedom. However, during the reconstruction, America struggled to free the slaves and assimilate them into local and national communities, at the same time minimize those citizens who were not willing to help the African- Americans. The Washington, Frontiers and other supporters of
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Effect On Air Pollution Of Kathmandu Valley Clean air is necessary for human health. Human body needs approximately 25 kg of air per day to keep up its requirement of oxygen (CEN, 2002). It replicates signifies the importance of air to human beings and any contamination in the air will have a direct impact on our health. Pure air consists 21% of oxygen 78% of nitrogen and 1% other gases. If the air composition is altered by the increase in concentration of certain gases or by intrusion of non-gaseous components like particulate matters, then the air is understood to be polluted and the components that alter the inherent compositional property of air are termed as air pollutants. Air pollution affects almost all aspects of the environment including the biota and the physical components where they strive on. A variety of sources have been identified as the components of the air pollution and they include both the natural and anthropogenic sources of origin; however, the anthropogenic sources of air pollution are more pronounced. Anthropogenic air pollutants are more harmful and include Particulate matter (PM), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Carbon monoxide (CO), Lead (Pb), Ozone (O3) and Hydrocarbons (HCs). (CEN, 2002) Air pollution is a big issue all over the world mainly in urban areas because of fossil fuel driven transportation system.. Besides this, the unmanaged booming of urban settlements has helped to increase the concentration of air pollutants by limiting their horizontal dispersion thereby interfering with the health of people. Mainly, children, elderly and the patients of lungs and heart are more vulnerable to the effects of air pollution. According to Asian Development Bank (2001), in the South Asian Cities, approximately 100,000 premature deaths every year is caused by the detrimental effects of air pollution. Air Pollution in Kathmandu The issue of air pollution in Kathmandu Valley is continuously drawing the attention of concerned bodies and the gravity of the problem is growing year by year. Owing to the topography of Kathmandu Valley, growing population, haphazard urbanization and increase in vehicle density imparted as an effect of affluence and need to serve the growing population, the valley has been facing worse situation of ambient air every year. However, the issue of air pollution in Kathmandu Valley doesnt bear a long history as the development of road networks and history of transportation system in the valley do not have the long history either. Many researches and the discourse held within the country on air pollution has identified the transportation system and linked with it, the poor situation of the infrastructure as the root causes of air pollution in Kathmandu Valley. Regarding the dominant air pollutant of Kathmandu, it is Particulate Matter (PM), the concentration of which is observed higher d uring night in the winter due to the creation of inversion layer which acts as the blanket to trap pollutants. The PM concentration in Kathmandu has always exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) standard and National Ambient Air Quality Standard of Nepal. Besides particulate matters (PM10 and PM2.5) the concentration of other pollutants are not a major issue in Kathmandu Valley. Gaseous pollutants such as NO2 and SO2 are generally within standards but the concentration of NO2 is fairly high in areas with heavy traffic and this has the potential of future increase with further increase in number of vehicles operating within the valley. Another potential concern is the concentration of air toxins such as benzene and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The concentration of benzene is within national standards but the national standard of 20ÃâÃ µg/m3 is itself fairly high. Although Nepal does not have any standards for PAH, monitoring done in 2003 indicated fairly high levels of these pollutants in Kathmandu Valley. (ICIMOD, 2007) PM2.5 is considered to be more hazardous than PM10. Although Nepal does not have any standards for PM2.5, some monitoring has been carried out for PM2.5 in Kathmandu Valley. (ICIMOD, 2007) Statement of Problem Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal is the focus of all the major facets of the country, namely economy, tourism, culture, politics, administration and natural environment. Due to the above reasons, the population of Kathmandu valley is increasing day by day. Apart from this, the infrastructure development has never been able to keep up with the unmanaged and accelerating growth. As a result, this has led to increase in slums, inadequate and polluted drinking water supply, polluted air to breathe, haphazard manner of dumping the solid waste in the neighborhoods. Every people have right to breath clean air. Increase in population, vehicular fleet, energy consumption and industries, mainly brick industries have contributed to degrade air quality in Kathmandu valley. Overall, the bowl or the cup shaped topography of the valley also has prevented the dispersion of air pollutants to longer distances. Research questions: The research will address following issues: 1. What is the main air pollution facing by local people in Kathmandu valley? 2. What are the main institutional changes that have been made to control the air pollution? 3. What are strength and weakness of these institutional changes? 4. What further policy measures should be instituted to reduce air pollution to acceptable levels? 2. Background Kathmandu is the capital city of Nepal. The Kathmandu valley consists of three major cities i.e Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur. Kathmandu Valley is situated in 27ÃâÃ ° 3730 N and 27ÃâÃ ° 450 N latitude and 85ÃâÃ ° 15ÃâÃ ´0Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ³ E and 85ÃâÃ ° 22ÃâÃ ´30Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ³ E longitude. And the Kathmandu valley is located at an altitude of 1350meters. The Kathmandu valley is oval shaped and surrounded by high hill range. And the area of Kathmandu valley is 340 sq.km and the total population of Kathmandu valley is 1,442,271(CBS 2001). The climate of Kathmandu valley is sub tropical temperate. Along with it have four seasons pre-monsoon, monsoon, post monsoon and winter. In general, average temperature in summer is 32ÃâÃ °c and in winter is 5ÃâÃ °c. Due to economic activity and high chances of opportunities and facilities many people from all around the country has been migrated in the Kathmandu valley and is been highly dense. Air pollution in the Kathmandu Valley has been one of the major problems. It can be said that air pollution started as the invention of road networks and automobiles. High population with unplanned and unmanaged urbanization, rapid increasing of automobiles, vehicles and industries are the factors in the causes of air pollution. http://www.tsiindia.com/img/nepal_map.gif (Source: http://www.tsiindia.com/img/nepal_map.gif, date:30th November 2010) According to the presentation given by traffic police, road length per traffic police has improved since 1995 from 2.3 km to 1.6 km that is good sign for better traffic management. Nevertheless, due to enormous rise in the number of vehicles in Kathmandu, the traffic police are laden with responsibilities of higher number of vehicles than they had to be for 1995. From 2002 to 2009, the total number of vehicles in Bagmati zone increased by 1.25 times than that was before 2002 from 176415 to 396151. The statistics show that the vehicles has progressively increased from 2002 to 2009, the only exception being at 2006/07 probably due to the cause of contemporary political situation. The number of vehicles for individual traffic police has increased from 165 in 1995 to 415 in 2008 i.e. more than 2.5 times. In reality, the number of vehicles a traffic police should look for is even higher because not all the traffic police within Kathmandu are in duty at the same time during a day. In the context of road length and vehicle numbers, the nominal increase in road length has resulted in crowding of roads. The population density per kilometer road length during 1995 was 1668 that rose to 2353 in 2008 while, the number of vehicles per kilometer road length in Kathmandu was 70 in 1995 that has risen by about four times i.e. 255 in 2008. Moreover, in case of Kathmandu the traffic congestion, in practice, is observed due to the inadequate road width and lack of proper identification of the road lane for vehicles moving from the opposite directions. The proper traffic management can thus be initiated with the demarcation of lane, which can, as additional benefit, reduce the vehicle collision and traffic accident. Figure : Comparison on Transportation Attributes for 1995 and 2005 (Source: Valley Traffic Control, 2009 where Blue colour shows 1995 and red is 2005) Causes of Air pollution: If any unwanted particles mixed in the air, it is called air pollution. It can cause for both human Well as environment also. Air pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid as well as gas form. They are may be either natural or artificial. Main artificial air pollutants are Sulfur Oxides, Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide, Volatile organic compounds, Particulate matters, ground ozone, ammonia etc. (Wikipedia). Sources of artificial air pollution are as follows: i) Rapid Urbanization ii) Vehicular emission iii) Industrial growth iv) Unmanaged disposal of waste etc. 3. THEORY 3.1 Concept of Institution: An institution is any structure or mechanism of social order or it may bee said as a set of some formal rules, regulation and norms of some formal rules, regulation and norms formulated to establish the smooth running society or to govern the behavior of human being in the society. Institutions are formed to formalize the society and to show the human being to act as a social animal. It is the outcome of the society and can be said as the need in the human community to harmonize the behavior of the people. The term institution is commonly applied to customs and behavior patterns important to a society, as well as to particular formal organizations of government and public service (Stanford Encyclopedia: social institutions). Although individual, formal organizations, commonly identifies as Institution may be deliberately and intentionally created by people, the development and functioning of institutions in society in general may be regarded as an instance of emergency, that is institution arise, develop and function in a pattern of social self organizations, which goes beyond the conscious intentions of the individual human involved (http://en .wikipedia.org/wiki/institution#aspects_of_institutions, 28th nov. 2010). The institution that has been established to enhance the quality of ambient air quality in Kathmandu is the outcome of the result from the air pollution. Those are not demand of the people but the result of the problem. The banning of two stroke vehicles in Kathmandu, banning of brick kiln factories was not in favor of people. It just hit on the head of the poor people in the society, but that was the outcomes of the problems not as the intentional outcomes. 3.2 Resource Use and Resource Regimes: Those goods which consists of a natural or human made resource system whose size or characteristics makes it costly but not impossible to exclude the people from getting benefits from its use are generally known as common-pool resource (CPR) or it may be called as common-property resources. Since the common-pool resources are open access, there is the problem off congestion or over use. Unlike public goods, they are subtractable. A common pool resource for example air is a large stock but only provides the limited quantity of extractable unit and over use will create problems as we are here to discuss the air pollution in Kathmandu. A common property regime is a particular social arrangement regulating the preservation, maintenance, and consumption of a common pool resource. The use of the term Common property resource to designate a type of good has been critized, because common pool resource is not necessarily governed by common property regimes.(http://en.wikkipedia.org/wiki/commo n/pool/resource,date26th Nov.2010). Example may be taken as the air in Kathmandu which is the common pool resources. It allows certain amount of pollutants but beyond this the gets polluted. There will be various consequences as it gets polluted. Because the core resource is vulnerable, it is subjected to congestion, over use and ultimately pollution. Any system has their own certain capacity to cope with the change and beyond that the system gets disturb and in case off air in Kathmandu, situation came due to the dramatic increase in population and excessive use of vehicles that run by the fossil-fuels. The use of common pool resources can be continuously done as the loop if they are managed properly and carefully exploited because they form the positive feedback loop since they are stock variable but the haphazard use of it deteriorates the stock and disrupt the flow variable for good. 3.2.1 Resource Use in Kathmandu: Open access Market Effect of distribution No rules As shown in the above figure, the air in the Kathmandu was open access and there was no any rules concerning the use of it and the ownership for it. As the time passes, there araised several agents and market introduced. The outcome of the dramatic increase in the population in the city results in the excessive use of vehicles for the transportation system. Unfortunately those vehicles are run by fossil fuel which when used emit air pollutant in the atmosphere. So there is the pollution problem in the valley. Now government has their head towards it and they are formulating institution to enhance thee quality of it. Though the air in the valley is open access but there are some rules concerning the use of it. Thee government have introduced green tax, banning of diesel running three wheelers etc. Now the system approaches where it is still the open access but with market, shown in the figure above. There are some rules concerning the use of it and hence thee distributional have came into action in this case. 3.3 Framework for Analyzing for resource use problem Air in the Kathmandu valley is common property and is open access. At the time passes, the technology has developed as well as the population of city increase dramatically. This is partly due the centralization and civil war in Nepal. If the natural resources was vast compare to the capacity of people to use it, there could be no problem (vatn, 2005), but here the thing is just opposite to that. Technology Attributes of the resources: Outcomes -resource use -state of resource Agents and aagents choices Patterns of interaction Institutions- regimes Convention Norms Formal rules (Source: Vatn, 2005,) (Figure: Framework for analyzing resource use problems) Finally this aspect has influence has chose new institution and government of Nepal formulated some rules and regulation for the enhancement of air quality in Kathmandu valley. Along with this, different Medias, NGOs, INGOs are involved to motivate people regarding air pollution. The institution such as banning of two stock vehicles, relocation of Himal cement factory, introduction of green tax was introduced. Although there are many such many rules regulation and acts came into existence but some the institution lack third party control system. The government formulated the rules and people were not seemed to walk along with this change. Since there was lack of third party no body were there to check and control the implementation of such policies. With regards to institution we may also distinguish between operational rules, rules concerning the defining of operation rules and finally external arrangement / rules. The operational rule defines the everyday regulation regimes. (Vatn, 2005). The next important factor to take into consideration is agents and agents choice. Here the structure of institution greatly helps to motivate the people. Institution in Nepal was so formed that people were motivated and aware of air pollution and its impact to some extent. But the technology did not fit the resource use. As being the developing county the people do not have any option rather than to use fissile fuels as the main source of energy for the transportation system. At the same time dramatic increase in population in the city force to consume more fuel energy and Kathmandu valley stood first in position in term of vehicle registration in Nepal. So the air being the open access was very vulnerable to risk. Eventually due interaction of technology and choice of agents the problem of air pollution came in the valley. There difficulties are mainly due to four factors. Basically regime is not able to motivate correlation action in accordance with what is demanded given resource characteristic, technology, number of agents and corruption by the government official. Corruption is so deep rooted that one can easily break up the institution formulated by the state. This can be seen as the drawback of the system or the lack of motivation. If outcomes are not in accordance what is expected or wanted agents can change institutional structures. In principal this may occur at all level, with regards to conventions, norms and formal rules (Vatn, 2005). However, changing such rules and regulation certainly need considerable time and result of such change to the institution can only be noticed after some period of time. 3.4 Air as a common pool resource in Kathmandu Goods or resources can be generally classified into two groups. They are Excludable or Non-excludable and Rivalry or Non Rivalry. When a person or a firm can set a barrier on his/her property like land to prevent the use of it by other are called excludable goods and those where the demarcation is not possible are called non-excludable goods. When the goods at one time prevent the use off same good simultaneously by other is called rivalry goods and on the other hand, just like air, the of which can never stop other to use it at the same time is called non-rivalry goods or resource. Exclusion costs (TCs) Low High I III II IV Yes Rivalry in use or consumption No (Source: Vatn, 2005, pp 263) (Fig: Characterization of resources or goods according to the cost of exclusion and rivalry in use or consumption). While goods of type I are typically labeled Private goods, type II and type IV are called goods and public goods, respectively. With regards to type III, common-pool-resourceis an often used concept. In the tradition of leaping of resource characteristics to regime implication, type I is often equated with private property and markets, II with clubs, III with standard common property or open access and IV with state/public property. (Vatn, 2005, pp 263) 3.4.1 Rivalry goods As we are discussing about the in the Kathmandu valley, it can bee seen that the resource is rivalry type. In Kathmandu valley, different types of factories, industries, vehicles are continuously meeting the air pollutant which ultimately invited the pollution problem and all the citizens are suffering from it. In the case of rival goods, the core problem is that of external effect. This is typically the case for many environmental resources where use-at least beyond the certain level-reduce its quantity and/or quality (Vatn, 2005, pp263). Therefore air in case of Kathmandu valley can be considered as rival goods. 3.4.2 Non-Excludable goods When the goods are private or owned by certain people or organization, than the demarcation is very easy that means transaction cost is very low. But when thee goods or resources are open access or common property, the exclusion cost is very high because the typical demarcation is not possible. In this case, air is common property and everybody in the city can use it undoubtly and the transaction cost is very high 3.5 Mechanism to reduce air pollution: The pollution problem in Kathmandu can be seen as the outcome of excessive energy used and technological development. This can simply be framed as follows: Production Input Output 3.5.1 Taxation input Basically the major pollution problem in the valley is due to the excessive use of the vehicles which are runes by the petroleum products. So air pollution can be reduced by introducing the tax in the fossil fuel. This is the best way because there is low transaction cost in doing so. High tax in the fule wills automatically reduce the use of private vehicles and the public vehicles uses will be increased to the considerable extent. 3.5.2 Taxation in production and technology On the other hand, this can be done by introducing the tax in the technology that means motor car, private vehicles, and factories, industries which use energy and emit the pollutants in the air and also providing the subsidy to those who use bicycle or electronic means of transportation. As the government of Nepal is doing , banning of diesel running three wheelers, two stock vehicles are also the way to enhance the air quality to some extent. This is a very simple way and there is low transaction cost in introduction such institutions but this dominantly hit the poor in the society. 3.5.3 Taxation in Output There is another way of controlling the air pollution but the transaction cost in very high in doing so. The introduction of emission tax can be very good way to enhance the air quality. Here the transaction cost will be fairly very high. 4. Methods For fulfilling the study objectives, a systematic study approach was followed. The major base for research founded with the collection of relevant secondary data and information from various national and international sources. The field-based study could not be done. The following process are done: Literature Review Secondary Data Collection Data Analysis Draft Report Preparation Final Report Dissemination 5. Analysis Increasing number of vehicles without extension of roads is diagnosed to be the major problem in Kathmandu. The growth of the vehicles in Kathmandu is a major concern to traffic police, vehicle drivers, and pedestrians. From the result, it is observed that the road length of Kathmandu is increasing very nominally while the numbers of vehicles are increasing with an exceptional growth rate and it ultimately help to increase air pollution. 5.1 Causes of Air Pollution Air pollution causes by both anthropogenic as well as natural sources. Anthropogenic source is the main cause in Kathmandu valley than that of natural source. Mainly fossil fuel combustion and other activities like brick factories, unmanaged road system, stone grinding factories are added pollution. Vehicle system is the main source to emit carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxide. Approximately 67 percent of Particulate matter is supplied by vehicular emission in Kathmandu valley. 5.1.1 Sources of air pollution Sources of air pollution are of two types: Natural and artificial. Main sources of artificial air pollution are as follows: A) Rapid Urbanization: Kathmandu valley has very fertile land, but nowadays it is known as unmanaged urban area. The main cause of this is Kathmandu-centric development and migration of people due to insurgency and political conflict. It is the biggest city of the Nepal and about 20 percent urban people live here. The population increase rate here is as twice as national rate of 2.2%. (ICIMOD, 2007). B) Vehicular Emission: It is the main source for air pollution. According to the Department of Transportation and Management, Government of Nepal, the first bus service in Nepal commenced in1957 and since then the fleet has grown substantially. The cumulative vehicular number in Bagmati zone (administrative zone where the vehicles of Kathmandu Valley are registered) was 176,415 in 2001 and it reached 396,151 in 2008. Most of the vehicles registered in Bagmati zone is used in Kathmandu valley. This record shows the rapid increment of vehicles in Kathmandu valley. Vehicle number in Kathmandu has been increasing rapidly in the last five years. C) Industrial Emissions: About two-fifth industries in Nepal are located in Kathmandu valley. According to the Department of Cottage and small industries, there were 14,971 up to 2006. Out of them, 111 are brick kilns and 89 are stone crushers. They contribute 14% of the total particulate matter in Kathmandu valley. Management of solid waste is another problem which also causes air pollution and vulnerable to health. (ICIMOD,2007) 5.1.2 Effects of air pollution The effect of air pollution is high in human health. High exposure in air pollution may cause chronic bronchitis, lung cancer, asthma and other respiratory problems. It also affects cardio vascular system and nervous system (Lahiri, 2003). Particulate matter is the main problem of Kathmandu, which not only affects the health but also the tourism industry. Due to the poor health, human productivity is also loss. All these impacts finally affect the economic system of individual as well as of state. The long term study of health impact due to air pollution is yet to be conducted in Kathmandu Valley. However, Child Workers in Nepal Concerned Centre (CWIN) surveyed about 60 children who were working as staffs on three-wheelers in valley and result showed that 84% staffs were suffering from eye problem, 82% chest pains, 66% were suffering from coughs and 58% by headaches. Similarly 45% children were suffering by respiratory problem. Shakya S conducted a study incorporating questionnaires to the traffic police. He observed that out of 90 traffic police, most of them were suffering from diseases related to nervous and respiratory systems. Similarly, Clean Energy Nepal (CEN) also did a questionnaire survey for the people who live near to the brick industries and in control area. The study revealed that 54% out of surveyed people near to the brick kiln were suffering from respiratory problem and 41% people in the control area were affected by respiratory disorder. The other problems due to air pollution are as follows: Acid rain Ozone layer depletion Reduction of visibility In context of Kathmandu, the issues of acid rain and ozone layer depletion are not very significant as both of these issues are the outcomes of the heavy industrial pollution. The formation of the photochemical smog and acid droplets due to hydration of the SOx and NOx are not well defined in the pollution status of the ambient air of Kathmandu. As mentioned in the earlier sections the concentrations of both these gases are well below the standards set by the Government of Nepal and WHO. However, regarding the visibility the problem perpetuates in Kathmandu during all seasons with even more pronounced effects during the winters when temperature inversion takes place. The visibility problem is basically caused by the particulate matters and the problem subsides only during the periods of heavy rainfall. 5.2. Policies and institutional arrangements for managing emissions from motor vehicles: A number of programs have been done to fight against the air pollution in Kathmandu Valley. Some are given below. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ In 1991, government stopped to register three-wheelers. It was the first response related to air pollution of Kathmandu valley. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ In 1994, government place emission standards for in-use vehicles. Green stickers were given those vehicles which met emission values. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Ministry of Population and Environment was established in 1995. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Environmet Protection Act 2000 and Rules were enacted in 1997. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ In 1998, the government formulated NVMES in 2000; these standards, equivalent to EURO-I emission norms, went into effect from January 2000. All new means of transportation imported from abroad since then have had to meet the terms. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ In 1997 the government decided to provide financial support to battery-operated electric three-wheelers. It was given in the form of tax breaks. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ In 1999, diesel three-wheelers were banned in Kathmandu Valley. Similarly it was banned in other cities also. Vehicle owners were given tax incentive to buy new vehicles. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ In November 2000, the government decided to ban public vehicles older than 20 years. Similarly it banned all two stroke vehicle in Kathmandu Valley. The policy was followed from 16 November, 2001. Government tried to follow this rule strictly but was unable to put into practice the decision. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ In late 2000, two-stroke motorcycle registration was restricted. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ The vehicle run by LPG and CPG (compressed natural gas) was improved from 2000. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ In 2001, government decided adds 10% extra tax for the vehicle having older than 15 years. This is the first case that government linked between tax and vehicle age. It helped to discourage the use of older vehicles. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ In 2001, The National Transport Policy was formulated. This policy is directly related to clean transportation system. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ In 2003, the National Ambient Air Quality System for various air pollutants was established. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Two-stroke three-wheeler vehicles were banned from 2004 in the Kathmandu Valley. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Government closed Himal Cement Factory to control the air pollution which was situated near the valley. (Source: Dahal, 2006) Government has formulated and applied many rules and regulations to address the air pollution of Kathmandu valley, but the graph below shows that the main air pollutants Total Suspended Particulates (Particulate matters) is increasing every year. (Source: MoEST Report 2006) 5.3. Strength and weakness of these institutional changes: It is found that reforms in existing institutional set up is likely to bring some positive impact on the air quality of Kathmandu valley. Removing two stroke vehicles from the valley have reduced the air pollution as well as noise pollution. It has also helped to reduce the energy consumption because the two stroke vehicles use more fuel than other. However, the rules and regulations are no implemented because of the political instability and corruptions. The economic condition of the country has also impacted on the implementation the institutions because the government has not allocated sufficient fund for environment. In Nepal there is separate ministry dealing with environment (Ministry of Environment), however, the establishment of the local authority like environment department and its associated regional and district bodies, to effectively deal with the problems related to environment has not been materialized yet, even after more than a decade has passed with the establishmen t of environment ministry. The establishment of environment department is still in the stage of planning and government has made efforts to establish it in near future, but according to the government financial constraint
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
I DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Know What I Want to Do, but I Know that it has Nothing to Do with Medical School Ihave had three majors since I have been in college. Chemistry was my entering major, which I kept all of one semester. The one I kept the longest is math, which I had for three semesters. Now I am an anthropology major. This is my first semester with this major. In fact, I havenÃ¢â¬â¢t officially changed the major yet. In order to understand where I am in my life now, you must realize where I have been. In high school I was in the National Honors Society, I took AP classes, and was completely controlled by my family. They had put the idea in my head that money made people happy. I had to make a lot of it. I was pushed to decide what I wanted to do with my life early. To my family the obvious choice was for me to be a doctor. I went with it. All I wanted was for them to approve of me. My senior year I was taking AP physics and a chemistry course. I decided I liked chemistry, there was my major. It really didnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter what it was, I was pre-med., any science would do. Science? What was I thinking? I got to college and realized chemistry was not for me. I hated lab, the professors, for the most part, were mean, and I just didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be a doctor anymore. The slight separation that I had from my family made me realize I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know what I wanted to do, but I knew that it was not medical school. Then came the freak out. What am I going to do with myself? Professional student sounded good to me. All I needed was something I could get good grades in without trying. Obviously math, since I never had to study for a math class in my life. I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t just good at math, I WAS math. So I changed my major, thinking it was the best move ever. It... ...es, I want to travel, and I hate the nine to five lifestyle. My plan is to get my Ph.D. in archaeology and then become a college professor. I will dig in the summer and maybe teach a few field schools later on. Being a teacher is something I would like to do too. Now that I am in college I realize the best teachers are the ones that are a little bit crazy. I think that is so fitting for me. One of my professors now, Elise Brenner, is my idol. She is an archaeologist and a college professor. I learn so much in her class because she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t do a straight lecture format, and she makes class enjoyable and memorable. I want to be to someone what she is to me, a role model. I may not have everything figured out yet, but I am on my way. I might not be rich a famous, but I will be happy. Someday you can visit me in my apartment in the city. That is, if IÃ¢â¬â¢m not in Africa. I DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Know What I Want to Do, but I Know that it has Nothing to Do wi I DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Know What I Want to Do, but I Know that it has Nothing to Do with Medical School Ihave had three majors since I have been in college. Chemistry was my entering major, which I kept all of one semester. The one I kept the longest is math, which I had for three semesters. Now I am an anthropology major. This is my first semester with this major. In fact, I havenÃ¢â¬â¢t officially changed the major yet. In order to understand where I am in my life now, you must realize where I have been. In high school I was in the National Honors Society, I took AP classes, and was completely controlled by my family. They had put the idea in my head that money made people happy. I had to make a lot of it. I was pushed to decide what I wanted to do with my life early. To my family the obvious choice was for me to be a doctor. I went with it. All I wanted was for them to approve of me. My senior year I was taking AP physics and a chemistry course. I decided I liked chemistry, there was my major. It really didnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter what it was, I was pre-med., any science would do. Science? What was I thinking? I got to college and realized chemistry was not for me. I hated lab, the professors, for the most part, were mean, and I just didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be a doctor anymore. The slight separation that I had from my family made me realize I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know what I wanted to do, but I knew that it was not medical school. Then came the freak out. What am I going to do with myself? Professional student sounded good to me. All I needed was something I could get good grades in without trying. Obviously math, since I never had to study for a math class in my life. I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t just good at math, I WAS math. So I changed my major, thinking it was the best move ever. It... ...es, I want to travel, and I hate the nine to five lifestyle. My plan is to get my Ph.D. in archaeology and then become a college professor. I will dig in the summer and maybe teach a few field schools later on. Being a teacher is something I would like to do too. Now that I am in college I realize the best teachers are the ones that are a little bit crazy. I think that is so fitting for me. One of my professors now, Elise Brenner, is my idol. She is an archaeologist and a college professor. I learn so much in her class because she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t do a straight lecture format, and she makes class enjoyable and memorable. I want to be to someone what she is to me, a role model. I may not have everything figured out yet, but I am on my way. I might not be rich a famous, but I will be happy. Someday you can visit me in my apartment in the city. That is, if IÃ¢â¬â¢m not in Africa.
Monday, November 11, 2019
A Comparative Study of Government-Business Relations and Benefits for Citizen in the United States (U.S) and Japan
The success of any national economy in the world is the sum of the successes of the different sectors that make up that economy.This is because every nation has more than one economic sector which is used for the purposes of enhancing the performance of the national economy. It has been paramount for every government to ensure that there are appropriate measures being put in place ensure that these various sectors of the national economy are performing well to be able to deliver the value needed for developing the nation and ensuring that there is rapid development (AMBA, 2009).Therefore, in view of this Ã¢â¬â and given that the manner in which the business environment is able to operate is a key factor in the determination of the performance of economies of nations Ã¢â¬â it is critical that governments are able to devise models that will ensure that their relationship with businesses is such that benefits are able to be realized for the enjoyment of their citizens.This paper c ompares the government-business relations employed in the United States of America and Japan, with a view to establishing the inherent benefits of each of them and so establishing which model is more appropriate owing to its ability to bring more in returns in the form of varied benefits to the country and to its citizens. The main focus will be on the manufacturing sector.The Role of Government in Business and in SocietyThere is always an intrinsic relationship between government and business because the two are the main institutions in the society. The actions of one are affective of the other and the actions of the two affect the way the society is viewed.As such, government Ã¢â¬â being the main player and coordinator of all affairs in a country Ã¢â¬â ought to ensure that it is in a position to work well enough to ensure businesses operate in the right way and that whatever is done is for the enhancement of the mutual good of the organization (AMBA, 2009). Governments play a very important role determining the direction of the economy and in influencing the outcomes of the economy.Among other approaches, the nature of measures like protectionism, currency rate determination and control, free market policies, and the handling of globalization determines how businesses in the country operate and so their eventual outcome. The manufacturing sectors of the United States and Japan Ã¢â¬â the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest and second largest economies Ã¢â¬â are very different. The main difference is in the relationship between the government and business.The government-business approaches in the manufacturing industry come in different ways and vary in each of these countries.Common policies in the sector have largely covered the areas of grants and subsidies, regulation with the aim of shielding the sector from stiff competition from the external environment especially in the face of widespread globalization of trade as well as other forms of regulation aimed at protecting the public from environmental pollution and other wasteful manufacturing practices; and ensuring that labor issues like employee rights, minimum wage, union autonomy, and work-place safety.The manufacturing sector is usually a very important sector and is in most cases the main source of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s muchÃ¢â¬âneeded foreign through its exports (Toshiyuki, Mika & Yusuke, 2010).Japan and the United States both have booming manufacturing sectors and although the United States has a relatively greater number of industries, Japan has tended to benefit a lot from the industry owing to its approaches to handling business matters (Toshiyuki, Mika & Yusuke, 2010).The American government has emphasized the need to subsidize its products from the manufacturing sector so as to shield the sector from stiff competition brought about by the influx of other goods from other countries in the age of globalization; as well as to ensure that the consumers benefits from reduced prices.Subsidies have made the cost of locally produced goods to be lower such that it makes it hard for products from other sectors to be able to compete on a level playing field with the American commodities (Toshiyuki, Mika & Yusuke, 2010). Therefore, although the country might not have a totally regulatory mechanism to check an influx of imports, it uses subsidies to give its products an unfair advantage over other products.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
The Philippines. The Pearl of the Orient Seas, a country full of wonderful places, places being visited of tourists from different countries. A great country with great people called Filipinos. Filipinos, people with such nice traits. Tan, the color of their skin, the color that makes many foreigners envy them. They have rich black hair that flows naturally. Twinkling eyes some have black ones, some have hazel brown. They have such lovable characteristics. They are hospitable ones, close friend or a complete stranger; they always make a time to smile to you and ask if youÃ¢â¬â¢re feeling alright. Cheerful, they are, and talented too! Reciting poems expressing the appropriate feelings, singing to the top of their lungs, dancing so gracefully that you want to join them. They are hard-working, industrious they are. They are also religious of course, they surrender all to God. There are lots of traits of the Filipinos that are to be proud of. And I am one of them, one of the Ã¢â¬Å"TheyÃ¢â¬ . I am a Filipino, a proud one. And you, I suppose, are one too. I just canÃ¢â¬â¢t think why we, Filipinos are not proud of our nationality, our country. Why we, choose other products than ours, because in our mind things made locally are Ã¢â¬ËCHEAPÃ¢â¬â¢ which is totally not true, we are makers of world class items. We should be proud of our country. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t you know that we, Filipinos, are admired by people around the world? They love the Philippines AND the Filipinos. There is nothing, absolutely nothing to be ashamed of being a Filipino. Neither our physical traits, nor our characteristics should be ashamed of. So, how do we show our love to our country? Easy. Simply choose our own products instead of the imported ones. This will also help our country arise in terms of economy. Learn about our country, this will also help you love our country more. We shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be ashamed of our beloved country.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Jennifer Lopez Essays Jennifer Lopez Essay Jennifer Lopez Essay For this essay the writter is going to write about two adverts, Advertising the perfumes Anais Anais by cacharel of Paris and GLOW by celebrity Jennifer Lopez. In this piece of writing the writer will use different examples to explain certain techniques used in these adverts. In this case the writer has chosen to do two adverts advertising two very successful perfumes. The first of these perfume adverts is going to be Anais Anais by cacharel of Paris and the second of these perfume adverts is going to be GLOW by famous celebrity Jennifer Lopez. Many advertisers use adverts to persuade certain people such as us to buy their gorgeous smelling perfumes. The aim of this piece of writing is to demonstrate how the writer understands or relates to the adverts and how they feel when they see these adverts, As the writer can relate to these two very interesting adverts, They will not be challenged in many ways, To use different examples to show us the difference between these two very sophisticated paper adverts. The main purpose of this essay is for the writer to show their understanding of the advertising media, and to achieve a high standard of examples. I am now going to describe the first advert that is advertising the perfume Anais Anais by cacharel of Paris. I have chosen this advert because the meanings of the words used are very cleverly used and the picture is also quite clever, The words are and tenderness will move the world and the picture is of a very beautiful young lady who has got a very natural, elegant, calming and tender look. It has also got a picture of the perfume which is quite simple yet very attracting, the colours on the bottle are pink which denotes blossom or care, green which denotes nature or environment and white which denotes clean and cleanliness, with a tiny hint of silver which denotes sparkle and shine. So this advert is very simple but nice and very attractive as it says that the perfume is tender and gentle and that its tenderness will move the world. I am now going on to describe the second advert that is also advertising a perfume that is GLOW by Jennifer Lopez who is a very famous singer and actress. I chose to do this advert because it was very appealing and it also smells very sensual. The advert is very interesting as many women would like to be Jennifer Lopez this is why the advert would be very appealing to women as this is the perfume that Jennifer Lopez wears. The colours in this advert are mainly shades of gold as this is a colour of wealth and prosperity and the colour denotes the natural goodness. The main picture in this advertisement is of Jennifer Lopez who has no clothes on but is covered in sheer gold fabric or material, At the side of the advert is a picture of the perfume bottle whish has a very extravagant look which is meant in a way to be the shape of a womans body in theory. Where as the words are very different and quite bold and up front and this describes what the perfume is about, the words are Fresh-Sexy-Clean its the GLOW this is a type of slogan as it is quite catchy and it tells u what the product is about in a way. GLOW has been targeted to the younger women aged between 13-20 this is because Jennifer Lopez is a beautiful young lady who has many male admirers so the advert is going out to young women who would like to be admired by there fellow boyfriends or males they like. Whereas Anais Anais is a more shuttle fragrance which is targeted more towards the mature, civilized lady of our day, but necessary anyone who has a good taste in perfume would buy any of these as I brought Anais Anais and I am only 15. The target audience for Anais Anais would be of ages between 21-30 who are a lot more mature than teenagers who would buy GLOW by J-lo (Jennifer Lopez). So the main difference between the two adverts is that one is targeted to a young hyper, sassy, sexy, loud, energetic, beautiful young lady which is the fragrance GLOW and this would attract many young men or boys to the young sexy, sassy, nice scented lady, whereas the other is targeted to a more mature woman who has a very sophisticated, elegant, superior feeling or moods towards her or them rather than the sassy, wild, feeling round a younger sexy female, such as myself, So the perfume for the more mature lady would obviously be Anais Anais. In my next section of writing I will be writing about what I am going to talk about, which is how different advertisers use different colours, visual images and words (language) to persuade consumers to buy the products, I am now going to start with the colours in the advert for the fragrance Anais Anais, the colours in this advert are sensual colours that have a very tender feeling towards the, these colours are mainly pastel shades such as pinks, greens, creams, blues, browns, whites and pale yellows which are very natural , although there is a tiny hint of silver and black on the bottle of the fragrance.